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Full text of "Journal of a residence in the Danubian principalities, in the autumn and winter of 1853"

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3e tliE atttttmn nui Wiuitx 

or 1853. 



Publisl)tr in ©rtrinare to T^cx Jttajests. 


[The Author and Publisher reserve to themselves the right of 
Translating this Wm-Jc] 






ORiGiNAL TO Be f) fZ I ^ 







Last September I left Constantinople in the 
Austrian steamer, ' Fernando I./ for the 
mouth of the Danube. A northerly wind 
was blowing fiercely down the Bosphorus, 
and the sea was breaking furiously over the 
Seraglio Point. On the way from Tophana 
to the steamer, the caique into which I got 
was more than once nearly swamped, and it 
was only after considerable difficulty that I 
succeeded in getting on board. It was late 
in the afternoon when we reached the Bay 
of Buyukdere, where we stopped for some 
minutes to take on board the despatches of 

B 2 



the Austrian Internuncio. From where we 
then were we could see the Egyptian squad- 
ron anchored before the Sultan's Yalley, and 
on the heights above it the green tents of 
Abbas Pasha's soldiers. From the centre 
of the Bay of Buyukdere, stretching away 
in an obhque line as far as the entrance of 
the Black Sea, was the Turkish fleet. The 
trim frigate close beside us, and the first in 
the line, was that commanded by Captain 
Slade, of the British navy, and at present a 
Pasha in the Turkish service. It was the first 
day of the Courban Bairam, and the Turkish 
and Egyptian ships were gaily dressed out 
with flags. We passed close to the ' Mah- 
moudia,' one of the largest ships in the world, 
carrying 120 guns, and bearing the flag of 
the Capaudan Pasha, or Turkish Lord High 
Admiral. Nothing could look more warlike 
or statelier than the Sultan's fleet ; and it is to 
be presumed that in action the ships would be 
well handled and gallantly fought by oflicers 
and men. From the Sultan's Valley on the 
Asiatic side, and Therapia on the European 
side, strong batteries had been erected at 


intervals as far as the entrance of the Black 
Sea. Within the straits the guns are gene- 
rally planted close to the water's edge, but 
at the mouth of the Bosphorus the batteries 
are more elevated. After struggling for some 
hours in the Euxine against the northerly 
wind and a heavy sea, we were forced to put 
back and anchor for the night off Buyuk- 
dere. The wind having fallen a little 
towards morning we again started, and on 
the evening of the same day we reached the 
small port of Bourgas, and some twelve 
hours later anchored before Yarna. Both 
are open roadsteads, affording no shelter 
whatever against the north-easterly wind. 
We landed considerable sums in specie at 
both these ports, sent by merchants in Con- 
stantinople to their agents there, for the 
purchase chiefly of grain and hides, which 
are the principal articles of trade at both 
Bourgas and Yarna. All purchases in the 
interior of Tui'key must be made in specie, 
the holders of merchandize resolutely re- 
fusing to accept the Kaimes, or paper money 
in cumulation at the capital. Grold and 


silver have of late risen considerably in 
value at Constantinople. The gold piece 
issued at 100 piasters is now worth 115, 
and the silver piece of 20 piasters has risen 
to 22. But no Turk is allowed by the law 
to take advantage of the fluctuations in the 
rate of exchange ; and if he offers the gold 
or silver money of the country for more 
than the value at which it has been origi- 
nally issued, he exposes himself to summary 
punishment. We found ten thousand men 
encamped in the neighbourhood of Yarna. 
The fortifications looked respectable, but the 
guns did not seem to be very efficiently 
manned ; for whilst we lay in the harbour, 
three men-of-war, apparently Egyptian, which 
were under sail in the offing, saluted the 
town in passing, and it was fully three- 
quarters of an hour, and when the ships 
were possibly out of hearing, before the salute 
was returned. The majority of the inha- 
bitants are Christian, who seemed to live in 
constant fear of their lives and property 
since the arrival of Abbas Pasha's Arabs in 
their neighbourhood. 


On the morning following our departure 
from Varna, we anchored at about a mile 
from the mouth of the Danube. There 
being only six feet of water above the bar, 
we could not approach nearer. The expanse 
of muddy water before us was strewed with 
wrecks. There was something fearfully de- 
solate in the scene. Where the water was 
shallow, the dark hulls of ships were peering 
above the yellow^ tide, like half-covered 
corpses, and in other places, the masts alone 
of the sunken vessel were seen rising up 
from the water, like the outstretched arms 
of a drowning man. Stranded on the shore 
was the large hull of a Dutch-built vessel, 
rotting in the sun, and close to us were some 
men in boats, trying to fish up the cargo of 
a vessel which had gone down the day be- 
fore. Within the bar was another steamer 
waiting to convey us up the Danube. We 
crossed to it in a barge, with her sails set, 
for the wind was fair; she was, moreover, 
pulled by six men, and towed by another 
six-oared boat, with sails also set. In about 
an hour, we reached the steamer waiting for 


US in the Danube, and having breakfasted on 
board, we landed for the purpose of looking 
at the town of Sulina. 

Sulina belongs to Russia. It is composed 
of a double row of one-storied wooden houses, 
straggling along the river- side, with a dreary 
marsh behind them. Most of the houses 
are built upon piles^ in the midst of pools of 
putrid water, which oozes out from the 
neighbouring marsh. The place is reeking 
with fevers in the summer months, and is 
almost uninhabitable from the cold in winter. 
Pilots, fishermen, tavern-keepers, and lighter- 
men, with a few Russian soldiers and a Grreek 
priest or two, form the population of the town 
of Sulina. I counted more than two hun- 
dred vessels of different sizes at anchor in 
the river. Some had been there for three 
months, unable to get over the bar ! almost 
every attempt to get to sea had proved fatal 
since the beginning of the month of June ; 
and all efforts to cut a channel tlirough the 
bar, appear to have been abandoned. A 
Russian dredging-vessel was lying idle at the 
mouth of the river, and judging from the 


mud with which it was encrusted, and its 
otherwise filthy and neglected appearance, it 
must have been unemployed for a longtime. 
Close to the dredging- vessel was a Bussian 
gun-boat. The only person on her deck was 
a long marine, in a mud-coloured great coat, 
hanging over the bulwark, and dropping bits 
of straw into the tide. According to the 
treaty of Adrianople, the island of St. George, 
on which Sulina is built, as well as the other 
islands of the Danube, ought to be unin- 
habited. The Russians, however, built a 
quarantine station at the south-eastern point 
of Lati Island, and shortly after they raised 
the little town of Sulina, of which they con- 
stituted themselves the masters. At the 
opposite point of St. George's island, at the 
entrance of the channel, the Russians have 
also built a quarantine station. The rest of 
the island of St. George is a desolate swamp. 
Independent of other causes, the lowness 
of the water over the bar, at the mouth of the 
Danube, since last June, would have been 
sufficient to stagnate the commerce of Ibraila 
and Galatz. And yet it seems to me, that 

B 3 


with a little good will on aU sides, nothing 
would be easier than to keep a passage open 
through the bar, of from fourteen to sixteen 
feet deep. It will be seen from the hard 
pull which we had from the steamer to 
Sulina, that the current must have been very- 
strong ; it must have been running at least 
five knots an hour. All, therefore, that is 
required, would be to rake up the sand, of 
which the bar is composed, and the force of 
the current would carry it away. A dredg- 
ing-vessel constructed with rakes, and not 
buckets, would easily effect this. Driving 
piles on either side would, of course, keep 
the channel permanently open ; but without 
going to this expense, the dredging-vessel, 
properly worked, could make a safe passage 
for ships, drawing even twelve feet of water, 
during the summer months. 

The St. George's Channel, which runs 
between the other side of the island and the 
Bulgarian bank of the river, might also be 
made navigable. In the shallowest parts 
there are twelve feet of water ; and the 
water over the bar, which is at the mouth of 


this cliannel, varies at different points from 
seven to fourteen feet. Ko regular sound- 
ings have, however, yet been made, and 
no buoys laid down ; no vessels, therefore, 
can attempt that passage. The Kilia 
Channel, which runs between the island of 
Lati and Bessarabia, is navigable tln^ough 
its whole length ; but being in the power of 
Russia, it is never entered by ships of any 
other nation. . 

There is no country more deeply in- 
terested in rendering the Danube navigable 
at its mouth than England, and it is Eng- 
land alone that has shown a sincere and con- 
stant desire to effect that object. In 1851, 
the exports from Ibraila by sea amounted to 
778,157/., and its imports up the Danube 
to 334,078/. The exports from aalatz by 
sea in the same year amonted to 496,368/., 
and the imports up the Danube to 374,233/., 
making in all a sum for imports and ex- 
ports of 1,982,836/. British subjects and 
British ships have the principal share in 
this trade ; it is, therefore, the duty of Her 
Majesty's Grovernment to exert its influence 



to remove, as far as possible, all obstructions ] 

to the free navigation of the entrance of the l 

Danube. . ' 

In about twelve hours after leaving ^ 

Sulina we reached Glalatz ; and after landing s 

a portion of our cargo, and a few passengers, j 

we proceeded to Ibraila, which is about ten \ 

miles higher up the river. i 



All persons arriving in Moldavia or Wal- 
lachia from Turkey are obliged to perform 
four days' quarantine. This is simply a 
measure of police, for European Turkey has, 
for some years past, been in as healthy a 
state as any other country in Europe. 
Between Constantinople and Malta there is 
at present but a nominal quarantine ; and 
between the former port and Trieste there is 
none. The quarantine in the Principalities 
is a polite incarceration of four or five days, 
during which the police have ^very neces- 
sary facility for making inquiries into your 
political opinions and your object in visiting 
the country. 


On landing at the quarantine-ground at 
Ibraila, a police officer asked me for my 
passport. I showed a teskere, or order from 
the Turkish authorities at Constantinople to 
admit me, without let or hindrance, into 
Moldo-Wallachia. This he waved aside 
with contempt. I then showed him my 
English passport, properly vised. To this 
latter document he made no objection ; and 
accompanied by the other passengers, who 
had landed at the same time as myself, and 
a guard of Wallachian soldiers, I made my 
solemn entry into the quarantine of Ibraila. 
Everybody confined in this quarantine is 
supposed to have brought with him his bed 
and all other necessary domestic utensils. 
Luckily for me, a Greek merchant, going to 
Bucharest with his family, came into qua- 
rantine at the same time as myself, and he 
was so kind as to lend me a bed, and from 
the guardiano I hired a half barrel, which I 
saw before the door, and in that I performed 
my daily ablutions. The guardiano brought 
me my food at stated intervals dming the 
day. As he did not hke making more than 


one journey from the kitchen to the den 
where I was immured, he brought all the 
materials for whatever meal it might be at 
once. At dinner hour, for example, he 
appeared with a basin in one hand and an 
earthen dish in the other. In the basin 
was soup, and on the dish boiled meat or 
pilaff, or both together ; and about his 
person he carried the rest of the dinner, and 
at times some small article which he did not 
find room for in his pockets he held between 
his teeth. After he had laid the basin and 
the dish on the table, he drew forth a little 
plate, with a very small iron fork, a spoon 
of the same metal, and a rusty knife. Off 
the same httle plate I ate the soup, slowly 
and painfully, as well as the pilaff and meat, 
or whatever else there might be. I made no 
attempt at having my convert changed with 
each dish; for on the first day, when I 
asked the guardiano to clean the plate after 
I had eaten my soup, I saw that he was 
preparing to do so with a cloth which he 
drew out of his pocket. 

On the morning after my arrival in the 


quarantine a police officer appeared at the 
door of my cell with a large book under 
his arm, and followed by a man bearing a 
gigantic wooden inkstand, into which was 
stuck a great clumsy pen. " What is your 
name ? '' said the officer, opening his book. 
I had told it to him the evening before, but 
he seemed to think that it might have 
undergone some change during the night. 
Every morning during my stay in the 
quarantine, he made the same inquiry about 
my name, as if it had a distinct existence, 
and was subjected to a separate sanitary law. 
I told him my age, and the place where I 
was born. " Are you married?" asked 
the officer. I answered that I was not., 
" Then," he said, as if it were the con- 
sequence of my reply, " how many shirts 
have you?" He then went through all the 
articles of my wardrobe, counted my money, 
looked through the papers in my writing- 
desk, and finally asked me why I was going 
to Bucharest, and who were my friends in 
that city. 

At length the four days of quarantine 


were ended, and the guardiano brought me 
the welcome news that I was free to go 
forth whither I hsted. At the same time 
he handed me the bill of expenses during 
my imprisonment. For the food, served in 
the way I have described, I was charged ten 
francs a-day, and I had, moreover, to pay 
the rent of my cell and the wages of my 
intelKgent guardiano. 

What is called the town of Ibraila I 
found to be an extensive dusty plain, dotted 
with houses. Close to the river-side is a 
long line of shops and stores. The stores 
were all filled with grain, and there were 
great mounds of corn lying in the open 
street for want of store-room. In this part 
of the town, I met at every turn with men 
cleaning wheat, or piling it up in heaps in 
the open air, or carrying it down to small 
vessels lying in the river. The place was 
literally running over wdth corn. It was 
lamentable to think that a great portion of 
it must perish for want of the means of 
transporting it to other markets. 

The only accommodation for travellers at 


Ibraila are khans. The one said to be the 
least dirty is the Locanda Bossa. It is a 
quadrangular wooden building, with a court- 
yard in the centre. It is one story high, 
and the doors of the rooms open into a 
gallery, which is about three feet from the 
ground, and runs round the court. The 
place was chiefly inhabited by Russian offi- 
cers and some other well-dressed people, 
who seemed quite contented with their place 
of abode, though they must have had a 
constant struggle for possession with the 
myriads of small inmates with which every 
crevice and corner of the old khan abounds. 
Outside each room is a tin box, hung 
against the wall, and filled with water ; and 
from this a tiny thread of fluid issues, with 
which the guest performs his ablutions. In 
this charming abode I passed a night. The 
only preparations made for my repose were 
a straw mattress and a rug. I rose at day- 
break, and filling a carpet-bag with a com- 
plete change of dress, I went to a Turkish 
bath in the neighbourhood, from which, an 
hour later, I issued forth clean and con- 


tented. I went and breakfasted with the 
EngHsh Yice-Consul, who, the night before, 
had arrived from Galatz, and in his house I 
j'emained during the remainder of my stay 
at Ibraila. Out of the desert, I had never 
seen a place so filled with dust as Ibraila. 
You breathed, you ate, and you slept in 
dust ; whilst it turned the water in your 
glass into mud, and in that form you drank 
it. Biting the dust must appear a mild fate 
after a lengthened residence in such a place. 
In an open wicker carriage, without 
springs, drawn by two spirited Httle horses, 
I left Ibraila to return to Galatz by land. 
These carriages are the best public convey- 
ances in the town, and as the road was every- 
where covered with a thick carpet of dust, 
I did not feel the absence of springs so 
much. Outside the town, we passed a 
Eussian camp of two thousand men. After 
about an hour and a-half quick driving, we 
reached the banks of the Sereth, the boun- 
dary between WaUachia and Moldavia. 
Here I had to show the pass which was 
given me by the police of Ibraila. We 


crossed the river over a bridge of pontoons, 
made about two months before by the 
Russians ; and on reaching the opposite 
side I had again to show my pass to the 
Moldavian police-officer. The river is about 
two hundred feet wide, and is of the same 
muddy tint as the Danube. About a 
quarter of an hour before reaching the river, 
we had passed through a village, in which 
were stationed five hundred Russian soldiers. 
They were turning out for parade as we 
went through. They appeared, in general, 
well made, soldierly-looking fellows, espe- 
cially the non-commissioned officers, who 
were mostly men between thirty and forty 
years of age, with a stern veteran look. 
The uniform was a green coatee, with white 
painted cross-belts and white trousers. 
They wore helmets, something like those of 
the London fire-brigade. The point, which 
rises to about four inches from the top of 
the helmet, is made of brass, and on the 
front is the eagle of Russia, of the same 
metal. The muskets had percussion locks, 
and the barrels were polished and had brass 


rings round tliem, and seemed altogether to 
be modelled on the common French firelock. 
They carried their greatcoats in a round 
leather case on the top of their knapsacks, 
which were made of cow-hide. I observed 
that they did not wear highlows like our 
soldiers, but Wellington boots. The uni- 
form worn by these men I have since 
learned to be that of nearly all the Eussian 
infantry of the line. When the Eussian 
soldier returns to his quarters, he instantly 
puts aside his helmet, coatee, cross-belts, 
and trousers, and turns out in his drawers, 
which reach below the knee, till they are 
met by the Wellington boot, and he wears a 
flat foraging cap of dark cloth, and a fawn- 
coloured great coat, which is gathered in at 
the waist and comes down to his ankles. 
It is in this dress that he performs all 
fatigue duty. I am sorry to say that the 
bright clean appearance of the Eussian 
soldier when on parade is confined to the 
surface, for his shirt, drawers, and other 
under-garments are generally in an alarming 
state of dirt. 


Before entering Galatz, we visited an 
establishment for preserved meat whicli for- 
merly belonged to the well-known Mr. 
Goldener, but which is now in the hands of 
Messrs. Powell. There are twenty English 
butchers in this establishment ; the re- 
mainder of the workmen employed are 
natives. The buildings are of wood, situ- 
ated within a large enclosure, in one part of 
which several hundred pigs, with wild 
bristUng manes, were penned up together. 
The great demand for the preserved meat 
prepared in this establishment is of itself a 
sufficient proof of its excellence. I think it 
right to say, as the question of these pre- 
served meats has been so much before the 
public, that I found on inquiry that the 
present proprietors purchase for their manu- 
factory the very best beef, pork, and mutton, 
they can find in the country. 

On the heights above Gralatz, we came 
upon a camp of 2500 Eussians, and I saw 
that sentries were posted along the points 
overlooking the Danube. No general rule 
for public cleanliness seems to be followed 


in the Bussian encampments, as I every- 
where ohserved that the air in their neig-h- 
bourhood is tainted with pestilential odours. 
This I think to be one of the chief causes of 
disease amongst the Eussian troops. 

Galatz looked to great advantage after 
leaving the dreary town of Ibraila. The 
streets are in general of a good width and 
tolerably well paved. In the principal 
street are some handsome shops, and there 
is everywhere a pleasing appearance of bustle 
and prosperity. Running along the river- 
side, through the whole length of the town, 
is a very handsome, well-built quay, pro- 
vided with commodious wharfs and large 
storehouses. Only a few years ago this 
quay did not exist, and this part of the town 
was traversed on planks, which scarcely kept 
one out of the black mud and putrid water 
underneath the exhalations from which 
poisoned the atmosphere. A great deal of 
credit is due to the authorities of Galatz for 
the pains they have taken to render their 
town commodious and healthy. UnHke 
Ibraila, there is here a handsome hot^l, 


where travellers may be comfortably lodged, 
and the place has altogether the appearance 
of a thriving European toAvn. If the impe- 
diments to the navigation of the Danube 
were removed, Galatz would inevitably rise 
to be a place of great importance. As to 
the authorities of the neighbouring town of 
Ibraila, all their time seems taken up in 
embroiling themselves in quarrels with the 
Consuls of the foreign powers. Whilst 
I was in quarantine there, a Wallachian 
went one day to water his horse at the 
Danube, and horse and man were carried 
away by the force of the current. The poor 
man was drowned, though the horse got 
safely on shore. An Ionian who was on 
board a small vessel, near to which the acci- 
dent took place, attempted, at the risk of his 
own life, to save that of the drowning man. 
He failed, however, in his good intentions. 
When this event was reported to the 
Grovernor of Ibraila, that sagacious indivi- 
dual decreed that the Ionian should be 
thrown into prison for not having succeeded 
in saving the drowned man. It is impos- 


sible to say for what length of time the un- 
fortunate Ionian would have remained thus 
confined as a felon, had not the matter 
reached the ears of the English Vice -Consul, 
at Galatz, who not only had the Ionian 
released, but also forced the authorities to 
pay him an indemnity for false imprison- 

Since the occupation of the Principalities 
by the Eussian troops, the police regulations 
have, by order of the Russian authorities, 
been increased m severity, and strangers 
coming to the country who are suspected of 
any sinister political object are not admitted, 
whilst refagces, who attempt to enter^ are 
instantly seized. Lately three men arrived 
at nightfall at the barrier at Galatz. When 
questioned by the police, their answers did 
not appear satisfactory, and they were de- 
tained. They said they were Englishmen ; 
but as only one of them could produce an 
English passport, he alone was brought to 
Mr. Cunningham, the Yice-Consul, and the 
other two were put in prison till further 
orders. The man given up to Mr. Cunning- 



liam said his name was Shaen. His pass- 
port was from the Foreign Office, signed by 
Lord Palmerston, properly vised, and was 
made out for " Mr. Shaen, a British subject, 
travelling on the Continent." On being 
questioned privately, however, by the Vice- 
Consul, he confessed that he was a Polish 
refugee, and that the other two men were 
his brothers. Mr. Cunningham, from a 
feeling of humanity, succeeded in getting 
Shaen safely out of the country ; but the 
other two men he was forced to abandon to 
their fate. Both Shaen 's brothers were 
shortly after sent to Odessa, where one of 
them, who had been an officer in the Bussian 
service, was publicly shot ; but the fate of 
the other remains unknown. 

Whilst writing this page the news has 
been brought to me that an aide-de-camp of 
Omar Pasha has arrived at Griurgevo with a 
summons to Prince Gortschakoff, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the Bussian troops, to 
retire from the Principalities.. The Turkish 
aide-de-camp's despatches have been forwarded 
by the police ; but he is detained a prisoner 


at GrinrgeYO till the arrival of Prince Gorts- 
cliakoffe's answer. 

After some days passed at Gralatz, under 
tlie friendly roof of the English Vice-Consul, 
I embarked on board one of the Danube 
Company's steamers bound for Grim'gevo. 

The saloon of these steamers is built on 
the upper deck ; and below, on the main 
deck, is another large saloon, with an after- 
cabin for ladies. The saloon on the upper 
deck of the vessel was a very agreeable apart- 
ment, in which one was sheltered from the 
sun, and tlirough the open mndows on 
either side swept a free current of air. But 
that on the main deck was, indeed, a dreary 
den. In the upper apartment the colours 
were bright and festive, and calculated to 
keep one in a pleasant train of thought ; but 
below all was of funereal blackness, and well 
suited to the long feverish hours that one 
was doomed to pass there during the night. 
Breakfast, dinner, and tea were served with 
something of the cleanliness and precision of 
Christian countries ; but at night the pas- 
sengers were abandoned to their own re- 

c 2 


sources, like the bii-ds of the air or the 
beasts of the field. We might have gone to 
roost on the cross-trees or beneath the bows, 
or slept in the bed of the river, for all the 
waiters cared. We merely knew that either 
the dingy den beneath, where we might 
share a narrow sofa with myriads of small 
vindictive insects, or the clammy deck 
was to be our place of repose. There are 
other things besides the troubled sorrows 
of the brain which murder sleep ; and if 
any one doubt it let him pass a night on 
board one of the Danube Company's steamers. 
There was a niche outside the cabin-door 
dedicated to the mysteries of the toilette. 
To this place, with dishevelled hair and 
bloodshot eyes, the passengers came in dim 
succession in the morning. In this niche 
there was a tube through which the troubled 
waters of the Danube passed, and under its 
spout we performed our ablutions. I came 
on deck full of the most unchristian feelings. 
I am afraid I was rude to the waiters, for 
when they brought my coffee, it bore a 
much nearer resemblance to thin mud than 


to Mocha. They may be very worthy crea- 
tures, nevertheless, fit possibly to be waiters 
upon Providence, and all too good to assist 
the wants of simple mortals. I beHeve, how- 
ever, that the most gentle and forbearing of 
men, after such a night, would not have 
found sufficient of the milk of human kind- 
ness in his breast to flavour his coffee. 




At short intervals along tlie Bulgarian 
bank of the Danube we observed small 
Turkish encampments, and on all the prin- 
cipal heights videttes were posted. Occa- 
sionally emerging from the wooded bank we 
saw a small body of horse, that stopped to 
gaze at us as we passed by, and then quickly 
disappeared. Often, up some sheltered 

dell, we distinguished a rude picturesque- 
looking hut, with three or four troopers' 
horses tethered near it, and the lances of the 
riders stuck in the ground. On the oppo- 
site bank were the Wallachian watchers, of 
the cordon sanitaire, standing on platforms 
before small houses, raised upon poles, at 


about six feet from the soil ; but no Eussian 
troops were anywhere visible. At Hirsova 
there was a Turkish force. On the heights 
were several batteries of field artillery, with 
horses standing near ; and amongst the sol- 
diers moving about the town and along the 
river-side I observed the fiistanelle and glit- 
termg arms of the Albanians. 

The next town above Hirsova is Tcherna- 
voda. Here there was also a strong Turkish 
force, somewhat similar to that at Hirsova. 
Built out into the river were several fiour- 
mills ; but the current in that part is not 
very strong, and the wheels turned but 
slowly. There were fishermen on the bank 
arranging their nets and repairing their long 
canoe-like boats, and beside them their half- 
naked children at play. We saw women 
passing with burthens on their heads, and 
labourers working in the fields hard by, and 
we could hear the drowsy hum of the wheels 
of the mills. These formed a strange con- 
trast to the frowning preparations for war 
visible all around. Close to the fishermen 
swaggered the fierce Albanian, armed to the 


teeth ; and from behind the moated wall, 
near which the labourer tilled the soil, peered 
forth the dread artillery. And the sun was 
smiling brightly upon all — ^upon the little 
children playing by their father's side and 
upon the Arnout, whose trade is strife — upon 
the signs of gentle rural life, and upon 
the bristling armaments of the camp. 

About half a mile below Tchernavoda is a 
river of the same name. Prom the mouth of 
this river to the Black Sea the distance is not 
more than thirty -two miles. The idea was 
at one time entertained of opening a passage 
from the mouth of this river to the town of 
Kustendji, and thus avoiding the yearly in- 
creasing dangers to navigation at the mouth 
of the Danube. A report was drawn up on 
this subject not long since, but as it has 
never come before the public, I think it will 
not be amiss to introduce it into these pages. 
The whole of the ground was gone over 
step by step, and what follows is the result 
of close and careful observation. 

The Tchernavoda is a rapid stream, rising 
in the Lake Carasou, and running from its 


source to the Danube at tlie rate of at least 
four miles an hour. The valley through 
which it flows is bounded on both sides by 
high grounds. Along the summit of these 
heights, on the eastern side of the valley, a 
road runs as far as Carasou, where it de- 
scends to the water's edge. What is called 
Lake Carasou is more properly a chain of 
lakes extending for a distance of about ten 
miles from S.S.E. to N.N.W. In the larger 
of these lakes the water is deep, but in the 
straits which connect each, its depth is 
seldom more than twelve inches. After a 
little time the road quits the banks of Lake 
Carasou, and passing over some high ground, 
again descends to where the stream called 
Caramourad crosses near Kouziel, and from 
thence passes over an extent of low ground, 
which, after rain and the melting of the 
snows in spring, I should conceive impass- 
able, to the village of Bourlack. Bourlack 
is situated at four hours and a half distance 
from Tchernavoda, and three and a half 
hours' distance from Kustendji. About a 
mile above Bourlack the traces of the river 

c 3 


are lost, and the stream must here be sup- 
plied solely by rain-water, for at the time that 
I passed it was quite dry. In fact, the springs 
supplying the lower part of the river must 
first exist in the Lake of Carasou. Above 
there is not a spring or trace of anything 
but collected rain-water. 

At Bourlack, or a httle above it, the valley 
ceases, it being shut in by hills of some 
height, on the summit of which extends for 
a great distance from north to south a suc- 
cession of downs, affording very fine pas- 

At Bourlack the road ascends one of the 
hills enclosing the valley of Tchernavoda. 
This ascent continues for nearly an hour, 
after which the road passes over the downs 
to the ruins of the formerly considerable, 
but now totally uninhabited, town of Dry- 
anlar. At ten minutes' ride from this is 
the highest point of the road, and it is 
from here that the first view of the Black 
Sea is discernible from the direction in which 
we came. From this point the Black Sea is 
distant forty minutes' ride. I looked in vain 


from this ridge for anything hke an opening, 
but within the range of my glass none was 
visible. Having no instruments with me, I 
could not find the exact height of this point 
above the level of the sea, but it must exceed, 
I should imagine, three hundred feet. From 
this the road descends doAvn to near the Lake 
Soujial, and thence runs over another succes- 
sion of downs along the coast of Kustendji. 
Kustendji itself is situated on a promon- 
tory jutting out in the sea, the southernmost 
point of which formvS one side of the bay 
or small roadstead. The town is in a 
state of ruin, from the visitation of the IRus- 
sians, who appear to have exercised unneces- 
sary severity in their destruction of the 
place. Kustendji is situated at about one 
hundred and fifty feet above the level of the 
sea. The small port formed by the mole, 
said to have been erected by the Eomans, 
has at present only about six or seven feet 
water, it being filled up by the ruins of the 
mole and the sand brought in by easterly 
winds from the sea. This port is only ca- 
pable of containing twelve or fiiteen small 


vessels. The bay or roadstead would be 
tolerably protected were the mole restored 
and extended, and the bay cleared of the 
sand and ruins. It might then give shelter 
to about fifty or sixty vessels of from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred tons bur- 
then. The facilities for restoring the mole 
are very great, as hewn stones of all sizes 
are on the snot. 

Having examined Kustendji I deter- 
mined on returning to the Danube by 
the road to Eassova, so as to be able to 
compare the advantages of the two hues. 

Leaving Kustendji, I proceeded south- 
wards for a mile to where the line of em- 
bankment, wliich crosses the country from 
near Eassova to this place, called Trajan's 
Wall, ceases, and this is the spot where it is 
pretended the Danube formerly fell into the 
sea. I could not see one vestige of a water- 
course to justify such a supposition. At 
the termination of Trajan's Wall there is a 
pretty regular succession of mounds, wearing 
very much the appearance of some of the 
Eoman encampments in Scotland. This 


spot is considerably above the level of the 
sea, and tlie ridge of cliffs continues unbroken 
to any extent farther than to afford a passage 
to the heavy rains of spring and autumn. 
The road then runs for about two hours 
parallel to Trajan's Wall, and is one con- 
tinued though gentle ascent. We then ar- 
rived at a point commanding a view of the 
valley of Tchernavoda with Bourlack in the 
hollow. We descended for about a quarter 
of an hour to the little Tartar village of 
Alacap, and from thence our road lay along 
the face of the hills forming the southern 
boundary of the valley of Tchernavoda to 
beyond the town of Carasou, where crossing 
over two considerable ridges we came upon 
a small marshy lake below Idris, down which 
we continued our road till we reached the 
bank of the Danube half an hour below 
Eassova, after nine and a half hours' hard 
riding. This latter road holds out no 
appearance of anything like a line for a 
canal, nor offers as a mere road any of the 
advantages of the line from Tchernavoda. 
The obstacles, therefore, to the formation 


of a canal will be seen from the foregoing to 
be, first, the continued considerable rise from 
tlie Danube bank to tlie interior, a little 
above Bourlack. What the amount of this 
rise may be, I could not tell for want of 
instruments, but it must far exceed what 
could be overcome by cutting, even with 
very numerous locks. Secondly, the ridge 
of hills running along the sea coast, which 
is, or appears to be, unbroken by any open- 
ing connecting the shore of the Black Sea 
with any of the valleys which lie towards 
the Danube. 

The road now existing from Tchernavoda 
is, in most places, excellent, and might have 
been adopted by the Austrian company if 
they had followed up their plan of making 
Kustendji the place of embarkation for 
passengers and goods for Constantinople 
by the Danube Steam Company's convey- 

Posting has not been established along 
either of the above lines, but horses are 
easily procured, as are also small and con- 
venient carts for passengers and goods. 



According to the treaty of Vienna the 
great rivers of Europe are to be open to 
ships of all nations, but it is evident that, 
from either apathy or design, the Danube 
will be very shortly closed altogether. It 
must be remembered, that not only the 
channel of SuHna, but that of St. George 
and of Kilia, are at present actually in the 
hands of Russia. At the mouth of the 
Sulina channel, which is the principal, the 
Russians have on one side, on Lati Island, 
built a quarantine station, and on the op- 
posite side they have estabhshed themselves 
in the town of Sulina. They have also a 
quarantine station commanding the entrance 
of the St. Greorge's channel, and a similar 


establishment at the mouth of the Kiha. 
If the treaty of Vienna be not a dead letter, 
the Powers interested in keeping the navi- 
gation of the Danube open should insist 
upon its not being violated. The more 
recent treaty of Adrianople, by which the 
contracting parties agreed that the islands 
of the Danube should be uninhabited, has 
been similarly set aside ; but even that vio- 
lation might be tolerated if Eussia would 
perform the solemn agreement into which 
she entered of keeping open the channel of 
Sulina. It was on the faith of this under- 
standing that Austria consented that each 
of her vessels which passed the mouth of 
the Danube should pay to Russia a toll of 
two dollars, in consideration of the expense 
the latter Power was supposed to be at in 
keeping the passage open. The toll has 
been regularly exacted from Austrian vessels 
up to the present hour, but the way in which 
Eussia has kept her part of the contract will 
be seen from what I have said of the con- 
dition of the mouth of the Danube in the 
foregoing part of these pages. 


N^ot long after leaving Tchernavoda, we 
passed the town of Silestria. Here the 
Turkish troops appeared in mnch greater 
force than at any of the places we had 
hitherto seen. There was an air of mihtary 
exactness and scientific skill in the way in 
w^hich the force was distributed and the guns 
posted, and one saw at a glance that the 
place was under the orders of an intelligent 
soldier. On inquiry I found that this was 
the head-quarters of a Hungarian General in 
the service of the Porte. 

About noon of the second day of our de- 
parture from Galatz, we moved up the muddy 
channel which leads to Giurgevo. There is 
here an island which divides the Danube 
into two branches. On the left stands the 
town of Giurgevo, and on the right bank of 
the Danube, about a mile higher up, is the 
Turkish town of Hutschuck. Giurgevo has 
the remains of some old fortifications front- 
ing the river, but otherwise the approach to 
the town is undefended, except by the mud 
in which it appears to be embedded. It was 
a few miles below tliis place that the Eussian 


army crossed the Danube in 1829. In one 
night the pontoons were silently attached, 
and then swung across the river by the force 
of the current, and before the day dawned, 
the army of the Emperor was on the open 
road to Stamboul. There is a considerable 
trade in corn carried on at Giurgevo, and 
constant traffic is kept up with the opposite 
town of Rutschuck. There is a post from 
here to Kutschuck, and thence overland to 
Constantinople. This is the route generally 
taken by the couriers of the foreign agents 
established at Bucharest. 

On landing, our passports were taken from 
us by the pohce, our baggage was examined 
by the Custom-house officers ; we were asked 
a number of questions as to our name, age, 
social position, prospects in life, where we 
were going to, and whence we had com e from ; 
and then we were turned into a stable yard, 
where there were some men making a feint 
of getting ready a huge waggon, which it 
was said was to convey us to Bucharest. The 
distance from Giurgevo to Bucharest is only 
about forty miles, and as it was then but one 


o'clock in the afternoon we had a fan- chance 
of arriving at our destination at a reasonable 
hour in the evening. It is not pleasant in 
these out-of-the-way places to amve late at 
night in a strange town, or even at a friend's 
house ; for the best of friends and truest of 
Amphytrions will be sure, in any country, 
to mingle liis welcome with curses, if you 
rouse him out of his first sleep, and force 
him to do the honours of his house in his 
night shirt. I politely opened my mind on 
this subject to the youth who was to act 
as our postihon, and he, being a boy of the 
world, at once acknowledged the propriety 
of my reasoning. He called the conductor ; 
my baggage was quickly hoisted up to the 
top of the coach, carefully corded down, and 
then covered with a tarpaulin. The con- 
ductor jumped on the imperial to see that 
all was right, the postilion cracked his whip, 
and eight hours after I found myself stand- 
ing in the coach yard at Giurgevo, in the 
very place where I had held my confer- 
ence with the postilion. The coach had not 
stirred from the spot when we first discovered 


it on landing. It was not the fault of the 
postilion, for he was willing to start, and so 
was the conductor, and so were the passen- 
gers. It was on the contrary the most ab- 
surd of obstacles which prevented our going ; 
it was simply that there were no horses. The 
horses were all this time in a distant stable 
waiting the orders of the pohce, and the 
pohce would not set the horses free till they 
had deciphered our passports. The giffc of 
tongues does not appear to be amongst the 
attributes of the Wallachian police, for it was 
only after eight hours' incessant labour that 
they succeeded in understanding the im- 
portant document which invited the allies of 
Grreat Britain to admit me freely into their 
territories. My passport was certainly ren- 
dered into the vernacular in the most satis- 
factory way, for I afterwards had the pleasure 
of seeing my name in the list of arrivals as 
'' Domnou Richard negoustor,'' or travelling 
clerk. For my name they had put that of 
the Ambassador, which was at the head of 
the passport, but the appended title I beg 
leave to say is a Wallachian creation. " Tra- 


veiling on the continent," the words in the 
passport, was the cause of my being put 
down as belonging to Mr. Cobden's useful 
corps. It reminds me of one of the Palais 
Royal jokes, where a gentleman is coming 
down stairs at his hotel with the favourite 
of the Prince of Seltzer- wasser. " What 
can we do for you ? " says the favourite to 
his companion. They were just then at the 
bottom of the stairs, and our friend, turning 
to the porter's lodge, called out, " Le cordon 
sil vous plait.'' The next morning, to his 
surprise, he received from the Prince the 
cross of the Silver Spoon. 



It was nine o'clock in the evening when 
the passports were returned to us, and the 

horses set free. But the conductor said it 
was then too late to start, for the night was 
dark, and the way bad, and moreover the 
Cossacks along the road, who are generally 
a very giddy, thoughtless set of fellows, 
might in the obscurity mistake us for a body 
of invading Turks, and not discoA^er their 
error till after they had cut our throats and 
rifled our portmanteau. We had there- 
fore no other alternative than to remain 
where we were till daybreak. There was a 
lady amongst the passengers who was very 
much the worse for drink, and who had 


passed the afternoon, when she was not oc- 
cupied in taking refreshment, in weeping 
and abusing the postiHon. She told us that 
she and her companion, an emaciated young 
man, in a rabbit-skin coat, had been waiting 
in the stable yard, to go by the diligence to 
Bucharest, since two days before. 

As I had nothing to do but resign myself 
to my fate, I went into the khan, which 
forms part of the coach establishment, where 
I got something to eat, a quiet chibouque 
and a cup of coffee. I then lay down on a 
sofa and slept till the postilion called me, 
and said the coach was ready to start. 

There were eight wild-looking horses at- 
tached to the waggon driven by one posti- 
lion, who rode on the near wheeler. We 
went along at a very good pace, considering 
the nature of the ground. There are no 
roads, properly speaking, in Wallacliia. There 
are merely broad tracks covered with a deep 
layer of dark-coloured dust in the summer, 
and which, in rainy weather, or after a thaw, 
change into rivers of mud, through which 
the coach labours, sunk in slush to the axle- 


tree. When the road is too much cut up, a 
new track on either side of it is chosen, 
which is soon reduced to the same state. 
But in the winter, when the snow on the 
ground is frozen over, travelling is performed 
very rapidly in sledges. It was only four 
o'clock in the morning when we started, 
and at seven o'clock we reached the khan, 
which is situated half way between Giurgevo 
and Bucharest, and there we breakfasted. 

There were about five hundred Eussians 
quartered in the neighbourhood of the khan. 
They had that staid, soldierly look which is 
the effect of severe discipline. This I ob- 
served to be the characteristic of nearly all 
the Eussian soldiers that I have seen in the 
Principalities. The exceptions are the young 
recruits, who of course are not yet properly 
formed. I have never observed any appear- 
ance of light-heartedness among the Eussian 
soldiers even when off duty. It is true that 
at times, in marching, whole battalions sing 
in chorus either the national anthem, which 
is a fine, solemn air, or some wild melody, 
generally of a warlike character, interspersed 


witli sliarp cries and an occasional shrill 
whistle. These latter songs are particularly 
animated and spirit-stirring, and the c[uick 
rattle of the drum, which is the sole instru- 
mental a(iCompaniment, increases their ex-^ 
citing character. To the listener there is 
something sublime in thus hearing thousands 
of manly voices blended together in chorus, 
uttering sentiments of devotion to Grod and 
the Emperor, or of fierce defiance to the 
enemies of the Czar. But even in these 
exhibitions the sternness of military rule is 
seen. Upon the faces of the men thus 
engaged no trace of emotion is visible ; their 
tread is measured ; their forms are erect ; 
they are obeying a command, and not an 
impulse. The emotions of the heart seem 
to have been drilled into order, and expres- 
sions of love or anger, devotion or revenge, 
are only awakened by the voice of their com- 

The country in this part is remarkably 
rich and beautiful. It had rained for a 
couple of hours during the night, and every- 
thing looked fresh and sparkling in the 



morning light. The habitations of the small 
farmers and peasants in Wallachia bear a 
near resemblance to those belonging to the 
same class in Ireland. The cabins of the 
labourers are built of mud or half-dried 
bricks, and covered with thatch, whilst the 
house of the small farmer is in the same 
style, but upon a larger scale. There is 
very generally some attempt at ornament 
about these dwellings. They are all nicely 
wliitewashed, and there is often some vine 
or creeping plant trained round the door or 
window. The spot, too, where a village 
stands is almost always sheltered by trees, 
and where there is not a running stream, 
there are generally five or six wells from 
which the water is drawn by a sort of 
wooden crane. To one end of the trans- 
verse pole the bucket is attached by a rope, 
whilst at the opposite end is fastened a 
heavy stone. With a lever thus constructed, 
the water is raised from the deepest wells 
with very little effort. Taken altogether, 
the villages have an air of picturesqueness, 
and almost of comfort. 


At the door of the khan was a comfort- 
ably dressed man in jack-boots and a broad- 
leafed hat. He was mounted on a strong^ 
horse, and was attended by his servant, who 
rode a similar animal. T^oth carried pistols 
in their holsters, and had valises fastened 
behind their saddles. This was one of the 
factors, or middlemen, who are very nume- 
rous in Wallachia. These men stand between 
the Boyard, or great proprietor, and the 
peasants. Their general system is to enter 
into a contract with the Boyard, by which 
they engage to pay him a certain sum annu- 
ally for a portion of his estates, on condition 
that the Boyard give them carte blanche to 
deal as they please with the small farmers 
and peasants. This is a system in which, 
as it may be supposed, the middlemen alone 
have the chief benefit. The Boyard, by 
thus abandoning his estates, loses a large 
portion of his revenue, whilst the middleman, 
who has no interest in view but his own, 
screws from the unfortunate peasantry their 
uttermost farthing. Thus the estate, in 
most cases, becomes gradually impoverished, 

D 2 


the Boyard soon becomes the factor's debtor, 
and the latter is ultimately the real master 
of the property. Almost all these middle- 
men are Grreeks, and some of them are men 
of considerable wealth, gained in the way I 
have stated. Notwithstanding this system 
of middlemen, which is almost generally 
adopted, and the deplorably bad way in 
which the land is tilled, some of the Boyards 
derive from their estates more than 20,000^. 
a-year. The private property of the present 
reigning Prince amounts to nearly 30,000^. 
per annum. There is certainly not in Europe 
a soil more rich, and scarcely a climate more 
favoured than that of Wallachia. The 
country is literally overflowing with grain 
of every sort, and out of France I have 
never drank a viii ordinaire so good as in 
this country. The common white wine of 
Wallachia, when kept for two or three years 
in bottle, is equal to anything of the kind 
produced on the banks of the Ehine. The 
rich meadow lands afford pasturage to num- 
berless herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, 
whilst in the neighbourhood of the forests 


there are immense herds of swine. It is on 
account of this great abundance of meat of 
all kinds that Mr. Goldner's successors have 
established themselves in the neighbourhood 
of Galatz, and that another English esta- 
blishment largely engaged in the pork trade 
has been formed at Kalafat. The proprietors 
of both these establishments find, that not- 
withstanding the high wages they are forced 
to give their English workmen, and the 
expenses of transport, that they can sell 
their merchandize cheaper in England than 
if they purchased the materials for their 
trade in any of the markets of Grreat Britain 
or of Ireland. Game of almost all kinds 
abound in Wallachia. Wild turkeys are 
met with in hundreds in the steppes or 
great open plains. Hares were sold until 
lately in the market of Bucharest at four- 
pence each, and a brace of blackcock at 
about the same price. There is also an al)un- 
dance of fish in the inland rivers, and some 
of it of very exquisite flavour. 

In comparing the habitations of the Wal- 
lachian peasantry to the Irish cabin, I did 


not mention that the interior arrangement 
of the former was immeasurably superior. 
On entering the cottage of the Wallachian 
peasant, you find yourself in a small room, 
which serves as a kitchen. Here there is a 
stove, which heats the whole house in the 
winter months. There is no cabin without 
a stove of some kind, which is an object of 
vital importance in a country where the cold 
at times is so intense. Besides the kitchen, 
each cottage has two rooms, both used ge- 
nerally as sleepmg apartments. The walls 
inside are smoothly plastered and neatly 
whitewashed, and the whole place has an air 
of comparative neatness. 



As we proceeded along the road to Bu- 
charest, we saw small parties of Eussian 
soldiers encamped on either side of the way, 
and in one place we passed a battery of 
heavy guns, drawn up in Hne, and pointed 
menacingly down the road towards Giurgevo. 
At about six miles from Bucharest we saw 
a large encampment upon our right, and 
every few minutes we met a mounted Cos- 
sack, hurrying along as if he were the bearer 
of despatches. The lance which the Cos- 
sack carries is not longer than the Enghsh 
one, and has no flag ; besides this, his other 
weapons are a heavy carabine, slung at his 
back, a pistol stuck in his belt, and a long 


sword. His uniform is a blue frock coat, 
buttoned up to the throat, and wide trousers 
of the same colour. He wears a high coni- 
cal-shaped chako, of black oilskin, without a 
peak, which is kept on his head by a strap, 
fastened under the chin. The Cossack's 
horse is generally a wiry animal, of about 
fourteen and a half hands high. His bridle 
is a plain snaffle, without side bars, and his 
saddle is of a very rude construction. When 
the Cossack trots or gallops, he leans for- 
ward in his saddle, with the upper part of 
his body quite straight, an attitude, one 
would suppose, the least suited for comfort, 
but he nevertheless sits his horse with extra- 
ordinary closeness. 

It was about two o'clock in the after- 
noon when we came in sight of Bucharest. 
Though near the first of October, it was a 
bright sunny day, and quite as warm as it 
is generally in London in the month of 
July. Seen at a little distance, Bucharest 
appears a very handsome city. It contains 
some three hundred churches, and each of 
these has two or more tall spires. Most of the 


public buildings are also crowned by turrets 
or domes. Every spire, turret, and dome is 
covered with tin. A thin gauze-like vapour 
hung upon the lower buildings, softening 
their outhne, and above this waving cloud 
rose the thousand domes, spires, and turrets, 
sparkling with almost dazzling brightness in 
the sun. They crowned the city like a 
silver diadem. Bucharest covers nearly as 
great an extent of ground as Paris, but a 
third of the space is taken up with gardens, 
so that one saw the bright green fohage of 
the trees, appearing here and there above the 
shadowy vapour, and this served to increase 
the charming effect of the whole scene. I 
was not so much disappointed as I expected 
to be, on entering the city. After passing 
the gate, where, as I need not say, I had to 
show my passport, and answer the three 
hundred questions in the Eussian police 
catechism, we drove through a long faubourg 
of alternate gardens and one-storied houses, 
till we reached a broad well-built street, con- 
taining some fine buildings. This is the 
part of the city inhabited by the wealthier 

D 3 


Spanisli Jews. We tlien rolled on tlirough 
three or four streets, with handsome shops 
on either side, and full of bustle, till we 
reached the coach office. 

Of the hotels of Bucharest I can say but 
little, as during my stay in that city, I had 
the good fortune to enjoy the hospitality of 
the English Agent and Consul-General, Mr. 
Colquhoun. The Hotel de France, I have 
reason to believe, is the best. The master 
of this hotel and his wife are, I know, re- 
markably civil and obliging. The charge 
here for a good room, breakfast, and dinner, 
is about 12.S. a day, and this is the general 
tariff throughout all the hotels in Bucharest. 
The cost of mere living is small, but the 
rents are high. One cannot have a tolerable 
bedroom under a dollar a day. 

Except in the principal streets, few of the 
houses in Bucharest exceed two stories in 
height. The place was formerly subject to 
shocks of earthquake, which was the reason 
for making the dwellings so low. There is 
a great deal of ornament about most of the 
newly -built houses, stuccoed friezes, pilasters. 


and brightly -painted or gilded balconies. 
This taste may be considered tawdry in 
Prance or England, but after the shaky 
konaks of Turkey, the effect was very pleas- 
ing. Some of the small private houses, 
situated in the less-frequented streets, with 
their projecting roofs, formed of small squares 
of wood, and their quaint porticoes, the whole 
embowered in trees, are very picturesque. 
The palace of the Hospodars is an unpre- 
tending building of two stories high, situated 
in the principal street, with a large court in 
front. It is at present uninhabited ; the 
reigning prince had been residing since the 
commencement of the present crisis, until 
his exile, in a monastery a httle outside the 

The opera-house at Bucharest is as hand- 
some and commodious a theatre as is to be 
found in any city in Europe. It is ca- 
pable of containing from seven hundred to 
eight hundred people. In front of the stage, 
on the second tier, is the state-box of the 
Hospodars, hmig with draperies of crimson 
velvet, deeply fringed with gold, and sur- 


mounted by tlie arms of the principality. 
In all the boxes are fanteuills covered with 
crimson velvet, and not only the stalls, but 
all the benches in the pit, are provided with 
cushions of the same material. The mould- 
ing and carved work on the boxes are richly 
gilt, and from the roof, which is tastefully 
painted, hangs a large chandelier, with gilt 
stands for the lamps, which, with the lights 
on the stage, is sufficient to illuminate the 
house. There is here at present a very re- 
spectable Italian company. I went the other 
night to hear Yerde's '^ Louisa Miiller." The 
performance was very good, better indeed, 
in some respects, than what I had seen in 
the same opera last May at San Carlo at 
Naples ; but in that unhappy city everything 
has of late undergone a mournful degrada- 
tion. The appearance of the theatre of 
Bucharest^ when I visited it the other even- 
ing, was remarkably brilliant. The house 
was crowded to the ceiling. The ladies in 
the boxes were gracefully dressed in the 
Parisian fashions, and I saw that the beauty 
for which they are so celebrated was not a fie- 


tion. The pit was almost entirely filled with 
Eussian officers. In a large box on the left 
of the stage was Prince Grortschakoffe, in com- 
pany with M. Kotisbue, son of the cele- 
brated but ill-fated writer of that name, and 
ex-Eussian Consul-General at Bucharest. In 
a box on the right of the Hospodar's were 
Mr. Colquhoun and Mr. Poujade, the Eng- 
lish and French Consuls-General. The latter 
gentleman was accompanied by Madame 
Poujade, a granddaughter of the Prince 
Ghika, who some years ago was the reigning 
Prince of Wallachia. The same good un- 
derstanding which exists between the French 
and English governments animates their 
agents at Bucharest, and both act together 
in the most perfect harmony in the common 

There is a public promenade outside Bu- 
charest. It is about a mile and a half in 
length and bordered with trees. Every 
afternoon it is crowded with the handsome 
equipages of the Boyards and foreign agents. 
At present it is rendered still more animated 
by the presence of the Eussian generals and 


their staffs. At the comniencenient of the 
promenade is a triumphal arch, lately raised 
in honour of the Emperor Nicholas, and at 
the other end is the unfinished chateau of 
the late Hospodar. On either side of the 
road is the public garden, which, for its size, 
is one of the prettiest in Europe. It is laid 
out in the English style, with gravel-walks, 
winding amidst thick foliage and bright par- 
terres of flowers. In the midst of green 
spots, here and there are fountains fling- 
ing their spray into the air, and there is a 
small lake, on the shore of which is a pic- 
tm^esque grotto. In the centre of an open 
lawn is a pavilion, and here, on fete-days, a 
military band is stationed. This garden was 
planned and laid out by Prince Bebesco, the 
late Hospodar. The public promenade is 
also chiefly his work. In a part of the 
garden, through an opening in a little grove 
of acacias, one catches a glim|)se of a very 
charming villa, the abode of a young lady, 
who is the ward of the present reigning 
Prince, and is one of the beauties of Bu- 
charest. She is a Sicilian by birth, and 


when a mere cliild was adopted by a Eussian 
Greneral and his wife, a Wallachian lady, 
who w^ere then travelhng in Sicily. After 
some years the Greneral and his wife died, 
and left their adopted daughter a fortune of 
30,000/., and confided her to the guardian- 
ship of the present Hospodar. 

The romance which attaches to the story 
of this young lady reminds me of another 
which I heard in Eome. Some twenty years 
ago there lived in that city a young painter, 
eking out sufficient with his pencil to sup 
merrily at the Lepri, or the Gabione, and 
get his coffee of a morning at the Greco. 
He w^as happy for the hour, and never 
thought of the morrow, which is, perhaps, 
after all, the right way to enjoy existence. 
One day he was surprised to receive a visit 
from the curate of one of the villages in the 
neighbourhood of Rome. The curate had 
the day before administered the consolations 
of religion to an old woman who was at the 
point of death. At her last moments she 
placed in the curate's hands a packet of let- 
ters, which she besought him to deliver to 


our young friend the painter without delay. 
The curate and the painter conned over the 
letters together, and the result was that they 
both went instantly to the house of a prince 
who is known to have a kind honest heart ; 
and when the prince heard what they had to 
say, he sent for his advocate, who took the 
letters before the high tribunal of Rome, 
and in a little time our young friend the 
painter was recognised as the rightful heir 
to a dukedom, one of the oldest in Italy, and 
he is, at the present day, lord of more than 
one noble chateau and of many a broad acre. 
The mother of the young man had, strange 
to say, taken a dislike to him from the mo- 
ment of his birth, and she gave the child to 
one of her women, determined never to ac- 
knowledge it as her son. The duke, her 
husband, was then dead, and report said that 
she had given her love to another. 



Some days ago I went to see Prince 
Grortscliakoffe review a portion of the Eussian 
army, wliicli was encamped about six miles 
from Bucliarest. The vast plains of Wal- 
lachia are admirably adapted for displays of 
this kind, or for the more serious operations 
of actual war. There was not a wall or 
hedge, and scarcely a tree, to impede the 
movement of the troops. There w^ere about, 
eighteen thousand men present. They at 
first formed in line, with the artillery on the 
extreme left, and next to them the cavahy, 
composed of lancers and hussars, and then 
came the infantry. The infantry, regiment 
by regiment, then broke into open column 


of companies, and marched past the General. 
Each company, as it passed before the 
Prince, cheered, and the Hght troops ran by 
in double time for about two hundred yards, 
cheering all the way. The cavalry marched 
by in squadrons, each squadron cheering 
when they came in front of the Commander- 
in-chief; and a body of Hulans, who waited 
some little time behind, went past at a 
charge, shouting wildly. The Hght artillery 
also went past at full gallop. Each regi- 
ment of infantry then formed in close 
column, with the cavalry and artillery on 
their rear. They were in all a magnificent 
body of troops, and went through the dif- 
ferent movements with wonderful precision. 
The effect of the great mass of infantry 
formed in close column, with the sun spark- 
ling on their helmets, was very fine. Seen 
at a distance, it looked like a lake of flame. 
When the inspection was over, the troops 
marched off the ground to their respective 
quarters, each body as it passed singing the 
national anthem, or some war- song. Prince 
Gortschakoffe is more than sixty years of age. 


but he is firm and erect, and has all the 
appearance of a veteran soldier. None of 
the generals under his orders seem less than 
fifty years old, and all have the same stern, 
war-worn look. 

Eiding beside a squadron of hussars was 
a young officer, mounted on a very spirited 
Arab horse. He wore the Circassian dress, 
with the cartouch-boxes on the breast of his 
coat in silver, richly chased. Tliis seems to 
me the handsomest uniform I have as yet 
seen in the Bussian army. 

Shortly after my arrival at Bucharest, I 
went with Mr. Colqulioun to pay a visit to 
the French Consul-General, who then resided 
in a handsome chateau, the property of the 
Dowager Princess Ghika, and which is situ- 
ated about two miles from the town. Close 
to this chateau is a lake, across which the 
Russians had thrown a bridge of pontoons 
on the day previous to our visit. On the 
shores of the lake there had been a large 
Russian encampment of five thousand men ; 
but, just before our arrival, the tents had 
been struck, and the whole force had crossed 


over the bridge of pontoons and marched 
towards the south-east. The whole of the 
Russian force was at that moment begin- 
ning to be put in motion. The encamp- 
ments in the interior were gradually break- 
ing up, and the great bulk of the army was 
moving towards the Danube, along whose 
banks they are at the moment I write, 
posted in echelon, awaiting the advance of 
the Turks. 

On the shore of the lake there still re- 
mained about a hundred and fifty men. A 
portion of these were engaged in cooking. 
Their camp-kettles were arranged in two 
rows, and at half a-foot apart, with about 
twenty kettles in each row. When we 
came up the kettles were all simmering 
gaily. The cooks, on the present of a few 
swanzikers, allowed us to taste the contents 
of some of them, and we found the flavour 
excellent. In each kettle were meat, rice, 
and vegetables ; and to these the cooks, as 
they went round, added pepper, salt, and 
similar condiments, as they thought neces- 
sary. Eussians of all ranks are fond of tea. 


The water used in making it they boil in a 
kind of urn, called a samavar, which is not, 
I believe, much knowTi in England. In the 
centre of this urn is a tube, which is grated 
at the bottom. Into this tube some pieces 
of lighted charcoal are dropped, which the 
au% passing through the grated opening 
below, keeps in a state of ignition, and the 
heat thus produced soon boils the water 
which surrounds the tube. Whilst we were 
looking on at the cooking, a soldier came up 
w4th a small brass samavar, into the tube of 
which he dropped some embers from the 
fire ; and to make them burn more quickly, 
he took off one of his Wellington boots, 
which he very adroitly converted into a 
bellows. He placed the top of the boot on 
the mouth of the tube, which he pressed 
tightly, and holding the sole with his other 
hand, he pumped up and down. The 
operation was most successful; for, in a 
little time, the samavar began to sing as 
blithly as any domestic kettle. 

For some minutes before, we had seen to the 
westward a dark cloud of dust, throus^h which 


were flashing tlie helmets and bayonets of a 
battalion of infantry. They soon reached 
the ground- near which we were standing, 
followed by their baggage-train. The mo- 
ment they halted, the men piled their arms, 
on which they hung their helmets and 
cross-belts. They then took off their 
coatees and trousers, and put on their great- 
coats and foraging-caps. In the mean time 
the baggage-train had been unpacked, and 
the tents laid on the ground in lines. The 
men then set to work ; the canvass rose 
from the ground hke a cloud ; the pegs 
were driven in, the ropes fastened, and in 
less than half an-hour from the moment of 
theii' arrival the officers were lounging 
quietly in their quarters, the sentries were 
posted, and the routine of the camp was 
going on as though the whole party had 
been there for months before. Almost all 
the men went down and bathed in the lake, 
and about an hour later, as we were walking 
in the avenue of the chateau, we heard their 
call to dinner. 

The word Bucharest means the city of 


pleasure. There is a Walladiian proverb, 
which says that he who has drunk of the 
waters of the Dimbovitza is loth to leave its 
banks. How people can be pleasant in a 
place which is constantly exposed to the 
inroads of Eussians it is difficult to 
imagine. If there be any truth in what 
is said of the waters of the Dimbovitza, 
both Muscovite and Moslem must have 
drunk of them deeply. In debating the 
question at present existing between Eussia 
and Turkey, no one seems to bestow a 
thought on the unhappy Principalities. 
Whichever party gains, they are sure to be 
the suiferers. They have at present quar- 
tered upon them a foreign army, which they 
are obliged to lodge gratis, and to feed to a 
great extent upon the same terms ; and if 
this army is forced to rethe, and their place 
is taken by the Turks, the change will 
scarcely be for the better. The Turks look 
on the Moldo-Wallachians as ghours, and 
would possibly not object to tax them as 
rayahs ; whilst Eussia, in occupying their 
territory, affects to regard them as vassals 


of the Sultan, whilst she crushes them 
beneath her armed hand as if they were her 
own serfs. 

The population of Wallachia is less than 
three millions, but the country is capable of 
feeding five times that number. Its soil is 
one of the richest in the world. The super- 
abundance of its produce contributes to the 
support of thousands who inhabit the 
British empire. But its resources are far — 
very far — from being developed. The com- 
merce of the country is abandoned to 
strangers, agriculture is neglected, and the 
more refined arts and manufactures are un- 
known. Wallachia is intersected by six 
rivers, whose source is in the Carpathians. 
These rivers could at a small comparative 
expense be made navigable for the passage 
of rafts. The mountains in which they 
have their source are covered to their sum- 
mits with magnificent forests. At the base 
of the mountains are oaks, midway up are 
beech trees, and above these are pines of 
extraordinary height and girth. All this 
wealth of wood lies utterly useless, and trees 


and branches blown down by tlie storm rot 
wliere tbey fall for want of the means of 
transport. In the Moldavian parts of the 
Carpathians, the case, however, is not 
exactly the same. The river Sereth, which 
separates the tw^o Principalities, is larger 
and deeper than the rivers flowing through 
Wallachia, and its w^aters are consequently 
covered during the season with immense 
rafts of wood, consisting chiefly of oak and 
pine, both of which are good in building 
and masting ships. 

In the Carpathians, veins of gold, silver, 
quicksilver, iron, copper, pitch, sulphur, and 
coals, have been traced, but are never 
worked. The Eussians, when in possession 
of the country in 1811, made an attempt at 
working some of these mines, but shortly 
after, peace being proclaimed, the Eussian 
army retired, and the mines w^ere abandoned. 

The Wallachians are not to blame for this 
state of things. They are a part of the 
deplorable consequences of the manner in 
which the country is misgoverned. A Hos- 
podar, wdio is chosen to rule for seven years, 



and who is ol)liged to fly at the end of 
three, who has bought his place from the 
Porte with two years of his revenue, and 
who has bartered to Eussia, in return for 
her support, all his real power as a reigning 
prince, can scarcely be expected to do much 
for the development of the resources of his 
country. It has become a fashion to speak 
of the Moldo-Wallachians with contempt, 
to scoff at their institutions, and to depict 
them as sunk in immorality, profligacy, and 
ignorance. Some of the loudest in this 
chorus of calumny are a discontented portion 
of their own countrymen. There are few 
things more calculated to favour the ambi- 
tious desires attributed to Bussia than a cry 
of this kind. Let Europe be made to 
believe that these Principalities are bar- 
barous tracts, inhabited by a set of profligate 
semi-barbarians, and the crime of seizing 
upon them will be overlooked in the thought 
of the good which may be thus done to the 
cause of civilization and virtue. 

These countries are rarely visited by 
tourists ; they lie out of the beaten track. 


The roads are always bad, and may be said 
to be impassable for seven months of the 
year. The Englishman who winters in 
Eome or Naples, or who passes his summer 
vacation on the Rhine or in Switzerland, 
could scarcely be tempted to go through the 
ennui of a Russian police office at the 
frontier, to be afterwards dragged on a cart 
without springs, with a wisp of straw for a 
cushion, across the steppes of Moldo-Walla- 
chia. There are no ruins to attract the 
antiquarian ; there is no scenery to attract 
the poet ; and there are no schools to be 
visited by the student. It has neither the 
comforts of western Europe, nor the ro- 
mance of the East. It is an untrodden 
corner on the highway of nations. It is 
this obscurity which is fatal to the Prin- 
cipalities. The inhabitants may be perse- 
cuted and oppressed, and maligned and 
calumniated with impunity. So little is 
Bucharest visited by Enghshmen, that I am 
the only one, not estabHshed in the country, 
that is in this city at present, and the only 
one that has visited it as a traveller for, I 

beheve, eigrhteen months. 

E 2 



When an occasional English tourist arrives 
at Bucharest, it is more generally the effect 
of accident than design ; and notwithstand- 
ing the attractive name of the city, and the 
fascinating flavour of the Dimbovitza, he 
jolts off to the banks of the Danube, as soon 
as the soreness occasioned by his previous 
ride has left his bones. Some years ago a 
man arrived one morning to the door of the 
British Consul-General. He was clad in 
the dress of a Transylvanian shepherd. His 
beard was untrimmed, and his long hair 
hung in wild locks from under his broad 
hat. The sandals which he wore were 
covered with soil, and his dress was travel- 


stained as though he had come a long way. 
'There was in his eyes a look of sombre 
melancholy, but it seemed the effect of some 
brooding thought, rather than of any priva- 
tions he had undergone. The Consul- 
General invited him into his house, and 
made him his guest. He had no baggage, 
not even the bundle which the wayfarer 
carries on the end of his stick ; but he was 
heartily welcome, nevertheless, and had the 
best place at the Consul's table. 

He was an Englishman of rank and large 
fortune. A wound in the affections had 
driven him from home, and he wandered on 
as far as the Carpathian mountains, where 
for some time he led the rude life of a 
hunter, hoping that in change of scene and 
the excitement of the chase he might find a 
cure. He was disappointed, however, for 
there was not sufficient danger in bear and 
wolf hunting to give it the excitement he 
required, and he left the Carpathian forest, 
and wandered alone through the desolate 
steppes of Wallachia, sharing the food of the 
stray herdsmen he happened to meet, and 


sleeping wherever he was overtaken by the 
night. Each day that he remained at Bu- 
charest he grew more and more mihappy, 
till one morning the Consul-General hap- 
pened to receive a letter from Constan- 
tinople, giving the details of a victory which 
the Circassians had gained over the Eus- 
sians. The letter was written by an en- 
thusiast in the cause of Circassian inde- 
pendence. The description of the fight was 
animated, and the letter concluded with a 
glowing panegyric upon the bravery of the 
Caucasian warriors, and a prediction of the 
success of the noble cause in which they 
were engaged. The moment this letter was 
shown by the Consul-General to his guest, 
whom I shall call Manly, the latter at once 
determined to start for Circassia, and volun- 
teer into the ranks of the mountaineers. 

That very night Manly started for G-iur- 
gevo, where he crossed the Danube to 
Rutschuck, and there engaged horses and a 
guide, and proceeded on to Constantinople. 
In that city Manly found another English- 
man ready to join in his expedition, and 


instantly freighting a Turkish vessel with 
salt, some ammunition, and arms, he sailed 
for the coast of Circassia. This was about 
the time the ' Vixen ' was captured by a 
Russian man-of-war, and her crew impri- 
soned. The coast of Circassia was more 
strictly blockaded than ever ; and it was 
only after the most hairbreadth escapes that 
Manly and his friend succeeded in landing. 
They were well received by the Circassian 
chiefs, to whom they brought letters of in- 
troduction ; but what was more highly prized 
than the letters was the salt, the ammunition, 
and the arms, which were quickly landed. 
The vessel in which they came then sailed on 
her way back to Constantinople, but at a 
short distance from the Circassian coast was 
captured by a Russian cruiser, and was 
brought into the Turkish port of Trebizond, 
and there burned by the Russians, notwith- 
standing the objections of the Grovernor. 

The two Englishmen proceeded into the 
mountains with the Circassians to where the 
fighting was going on, and they were soon 
busily engaged in skirmishing, ambuscading. 


and, at times, in hand-to-liand enconnters 
with the Mnscovites. Manly, mounted on 
a fiery Tartar horse, clad in chain armour, 
and with a long lance in his hand, was in 
the thick of every danger. Pie courted 
death ; hut for a long time passed unscathed 
from lance or huUet. At length, in a sharp 
encounter with a party of Russians, he was 
struck hy a chance shot, and, though not 
seriously wounded, he was forced to submit 
to being carried to the house of one of the 
chiefs, Vv^here he was recommended to remain 
till his wound should be healed. The wife 
and daughter of the chief in whose house he 
was quartered tended him with care and 
skill, and he was soon able to move about, 
but was still too weak to return to the 
camp. The chief's daughter was about 
fifteen years old. She was called in the 
country " The Rose," on account of her 
beauty. She was gentle and intelligent, 
and Manly passed many of the houi's of his 
convalescence in mvino; her instruction in 
some of those simple accomplishments which 
form the first rudiments of an education in 


Europe. There is something ineffably win- 
ning in the manners of the Mahomedan 
women of the East. They possess a timid 
gentleness, and a naive grace, which are 
eminently feminine. They are taught to 
believe themselves as far inferior to man, 
as creatures of clay, that have no existence 
beyond this world, and their manner, 
therefore, towards our rougher sex is one 
that woos protection. It is this feeling of 
inferiority which gives to the face of the 
Oriental girl, when in repose, that expres- 
sion of dreamy sadness, and that inward 
look to her lustrous eyes, for if she is not 
beloved, the end and object of her life 
is not fulfilled. Eose made rapid progress 
under Manly ; and when, after some months, 
the camp was broken up on the approacli of 
winter, and her father returned home, she 
quite astonished the poor chief with her 
Prankish learning. The winter passed ra- 
pidly by — the snow and the ice disappeared 
— the stream was again babbling merril}^ 
before the door of the Circassian keep — the 
forest trees were coming into leaf, and the 

E 3 


wild flowers and aromatic plants wliicli 
covered the hills filled the air with perfume. 
The mountaineers began their preparations 
for war ; but Manly had found a palliative 
for the sorrows of his brain, and determined 
to return to England ; but he would not 
part from " The Eose/' He knew the fate 
for which the poor child was destined, and, 
therefore, had no hesitation in proposing 
to the old chief to take Eose with him 
to Frankistaun, and to adopt her as his 
daughter ; for he said that he had grown to 
love her as if she were his own child. The 
chief said that his daughter was beautiful ; 
and that, moreover, thanks to Manly, she 
had learned certain accomplishments which 
increased her value. She would, therefore, 
he said, fetch a very high price at Constan- 
tinople, and that it was his intention to take 
her at once to the slave-market in that city, 
where she was sure to be bought by one of 
the great Pashas, or, perhaps, by the Padishaw 
himself. Manly offered to give any sum the 
chief named; but it was useless. The old 
man said he would never permit his child to 


live amongst glioiirs, for that she would be 
much happier and better as an odalich at 
Stamboul, where she would ride in a gilded 
araba, and wear a jewelled fez, and have 
armed kislers to do her bidding. Manly 
still persisted in his offers ; and the chief at 
length said that he would give him a final 
answer on the following morning. At a 
short distance from the house Manly found 
Rose seated on the ground, weeping. It 
was a place at which they had often sat 
together, and talked of the strange country 
from which the Enghshman came. Poor 
Rose had overheard Manly' s proposal and 
her father's refusal. She was no longer a 
child ; she had passed rapidly into budding 
womanhood. If Manly loved her as a 
daughter, her feelings for him had grown 
into a timid but passionate love. Manly 
said that her father would be sure to con-^ 
sent, and that in a little time they would 
both be happy together in Frankistaun. {So 
poor Rose was comforted. She dried her 
tears, and returned to the house confident 
and cheerful. 


The sun had been risen for some time 
wlien Manly awoke next morning. He was 
astonished to hear none of the usual sounds 
about the house. There was something- 
ominous in the silence. He dressed hastily, 
and hurried into the principal apartment 
and found it empty. With a beating heart 
he called Eose ; but there was no answer. 
He went out and met an armed Circassian 
coming from the stable where his horse was 
kept. This man told him that the chief and 
all his family had left for Battoum in tlie' 
middle of the night, at which port they in- 
tended to embark for Constantinople. He 
was left behind, he said, to wait on the 
Mousafeer, and to be his guide wherever he 
wished to go. 

Some months afterwards Manly arrived at 
Constantinople. He made every inquiry 
amongst the Circassians at Tophana to try 
and discover some clue to the old chief and 
his daughter, but all in vain. 

One day he was coming down the Bos- 
phorus in a caique. He was passing close 
along tlie Asiatic shore, and liad reached tlie 


village of Kandeljee, when an old woman, 
who was standing on the marble steps^ which 
led into the yally, or summer residence of 
one of the great Pashas, called to him to 
stop. She asked him if he were a doctor? 
He answered that he knew something of 
medicine ; so she made him a sign to follow 
her into the house. She led hmi along 
silently into one of the small rooms of the 
harim. The apartment was dimly lighted, 
for the silken draperies of the lattice were 
closely drawn. On the divan lay the form 
of a young girl ; her hands were pressed 
upon her bosom, and she was moaning 
feebly. At the noise which Manly made in 
approaching she raised her eyes, and, sud- 
denly starting up, she put back the long 
dark hair which fell loose upon her shoul- 
ders, and, after staring at him wildly for a 
few minutes, she fell l^ack upon the divan 
apparently lifeless. 

It was poor Eose that lay before him. 
Under his care her senses returned ; but 
Manly saw, to his unutterable grief, that she 
was dying. Immediately on her arrival at 


Stamboul slie told liim she was bought for a 
large sum by the Pasha in whose house she 
then lay. The Pasha made her his favourite, 
and the other odalichs grew jealous. Find- 
ing they could not succeed in alienating the 
Pasha's love from Rose, they determined to 
poison her, and that very morning she had 
swallowed the fatal drug in her coffee. She 
said she did not regret to die, for her life 
had been one of constant suffering since her 
separation from Manly. She could never 
love but him ; and she would take her love 
with her to the other world that he spoke 
of, and there wait his coming. And she 
talked of her native mountains, and of the 
happy hours they had passed there together ; 
and, speaking in this way, she laid her head 
upon his shoulder, and, drawing a long sigh, 
she died. 

She is buried amongst the cypress trees, 
upon a height above the Pasha's yally. It 
was on a summer's evening, years ago, when 
seated beside poor Eose's grave, that I heard 
her story. 

Manly went home and entered Parlia- 


ment, and he is at this moment a worthy 
Member of the House of Commons. He is 
still unmarried, and I beheve means to die a 



As far as the inhabitants of Moldo-Wal- 
lachia are concerned, a more docile, hard- 
working, and honest people is not to be 
found. Such things as drunken riots are 
unknown, and robbery by a Wallachian is 
far from being common. Even the gypsies, 
who here form a comparatively large portion 
of the population, are not addicted to theft ; 
a vice which, in other countries, seems to be 
inherent in that strange people. With re- 
gard to the upper classes, I have met amongst 
them men as well educated and as gifted as 
any of the same rank in England or France. 
But there is no public career open to them 
in their own country. There is no incen- 


tive to lionoiirable ambition, there is no 
occupation for tlie exercise of the intellect. 
The Government is an ignoble vassalage 
under another name, and its public insti- 
tutions are but a mockery of independence. 
The office of Hospodar, so far from being a 
mark of distinction, conferred by the nation 
upon the most deserving citizen, is generally 
attained by the person who is most success- 
ful in ingratiating himself with the Russian 
authorities, and who has shown most tact in 
the distribution of bribes at the Porte. 

Humanity demands that something should 
be done by the great powers of Europe for 
the amelioration of these Principalities. 
Under the present system they are exposed 
to the invasion of a Russian army, on 
the slightest pretext, and they are after- 
wards forced to pay the expenses of the occu- 
pation, and to support, to a great extent, 
those foreign troops whilst they remain in 
the country. In the present quarrel between 
Russia and the Porte, the Moldo - Walla- 
chians, without a shadow of justice, are 
made the first victims. Their commerce is 


ruined, the industry of the country is sus- 
pended ; the peasant is dragged from the 
cultivation of his fields to transport the bag- 
gage of a foreign army, his house is occupied 
and his scanty store of food eaten by the 
soldiers of another nation. The farmers 
cannot pay their landlords, for the produce 
of their land is rotting in the open air at the 
ports of the Danube, for want of the means 
of transport. The forage and other stock 
brought to the markets of Bucharest and the 
other towns of the Principalities, are sold at 
a price fixed by the Russian Commissariat ; 
a price which was established in the abund- 
ant season of last June, and which is less 
than half what the same produce ought 
to bring at the present time. It is evident 
that if this state of things be permitted 
to last, these Principalities, notwithstanding 
the immense resources with which they are 
endowed by nature, must fall to ruin. 

Hospodars, with a divan chosen in the 
corrupt way T have shown, by Russia 
and Turkey, are evidently not a proper 
form of government for these countries. 


Let an end be put to the intrigues by 
which these princes are elected and after- 
wards deposed. Let these two Principali- 
ties, which are capable of supporting twenty 
millions of souls, be raised into an inde- 
pendent power. Let a ruler be chosen for 
them from amongst the royal families of 
Grermany, or even amongst the meuibers of 
the Imperial houses of Austria or Russia. 
Let a regular dynasty be formed, and an 
end will be put to those wretched plots 
which thwart the authority of the Prince 
and lead to his downfall ; plots in which the 
Boyards, jealous of the head of the State, 
and anxious to occupy his place, sacrifice 
the public weal in the hope of gratifying 
their own ambition. The example of a w^ell- 
organized Court, with a virtuous and able 
prince at its head, would do more to era- 
dicate the remnants of Oriental corruption 
which still exist in these countries, and to 
substitute in their place sentiments of honour, 
of patriotism, and of truth, than all the cen- 
sures of the Press, or the remonstrances of 
foreign powers. Let the integrity of tlie 


new nation be guaranteed as was that of 
(jrreece, and the Pruth would be no longer 
too feeble a barrier against the inroads of 
Eussia, nor a simple line of boundary, a 
useless obstacle to the encroachments of 
Austria. Peace would at length, after long 
centuries of turmoil and intrigue, visit these 
unhappy countries. Moldo-Wallachia might 
then become, in reality, the granary of 
Europe, and, under an independent govern- 
ment, with rational institutions, would share 
in all those advantages of progressive civili- 
zation which have been hitherto denied to it 
by its deplorable position. You cannot ex- 
pect the virtues of patriotism from men who 
have in reality no country, that is to say, 
where the aggregate of the people of whom 
they form a part is not bound together 
by equitable social laws ; nor can you expect 
that the higher moral and intellectual qua- 
lities of a nation will develop themselves 
under a government which is too corrupt to 
appreciate such qualities or to give them en- 

The following is the treaty which Bladus, 


Yaivode of Wallachia, made with Sultan 
Mahomet IT., m 1460. This treaty is the 
fact upon which the Turks found their 
right of suzereinty over the people of this 
Principality. Its spirit has never been 
altered by any subsequent act, and it is 
the groundwork of all the ulterior arrange- 
ments which have been made between the 
Principalities and the Porte, and between 
Eussia and Turkey, for the government of 
Moldo-Wallachia : — 

1st. ^' The Sultan engages for himself and 
his successors, to give protection to Walla- 
chia, and to defend it against all enemies, 
assuming nothing more than a supremacy 
over the sovereignty of that Principality, the 
Vaivodes of which shall be bound to pay to 
the Sublime Porte an annual tribute of 
10,000 piastres. 

2nd. " The Sublime Porte shall never in- 
terfere in the local administration of the said 
Principality, nor shall any Turk be ever per- 
mitted to come into Wallachia without an 
ostensible reason. 


3rd. ^' Every year an officer of the Porte 
shall come to Wallachia to receive the 
tribute, and on his return shall be accom- 
panied by an officer of the Vaivode, as 
far as Griurgevo, on the Danube, where 
the money shall be counted over again, a 
second receipt given for it, and when it 
has been carried in safety to the other side 
of that river, Wallachia shall no longer 
be responsible for any accident that may 
befall it. 

4th. " The Vaivodes shall continue to be 
elected by the archbishop, metropolitan, 
bishops and boyards, and the election shall 
be acknowledged by the Porte. 

5th. " The Wallachian nation shall con- 
tinue to enjoy the tree exercise of their own 
laws ; and the Vaivodes shall have the right 
of life and death over their own subjects 
as well as that of making war and peace, 
without having to account for any such pro- 
ceedings to the Sublime Porte. 

6th. " All Christians, who having once 
embraced the Mohammedan faith, should 
come into Wallachia and resume the Christian 


religion, shall not be claimed by any Ottoman 

7 til. " Wallacliian subjects wlio may have 
occasion to go into any part of the Ottoman 
dominions, shall not be there called upon 
for the haratsh, or capitation tax, paid by 
other r ayahs. 

8th. " If any Turk have a law-suit in Wal- 
lachia, with a subject of the country, his 
cause shall be heard and decided by the 
Wallachian divan, conformably to the local 

9th. " All Turkish merchants coming to 
buy and sell goods in the Principality, shall, 
on their arrival, have to give notice to the 
local authorities for the time necessary for 
their stay, and shall depart when that time 
is expired. 

1 0th. " No Turk is authorized to take away 
one or more servants of either sex, natives of 
Wallachia, and no Turkish mosque shall ever 
exist on any part of the Wallachian ter- 

1 1th. " The Sublime Porte promises never 
to grant a Firman at the request of a Wal- 


lacliian subject, for his affairs in Wallachia, 
of whatever nature they may be ; and never 
to assume the right of calHng to Constanti- 
nople, or to any other part of the Turkish 
dominions, a Wallachian subject, on any 
pretence whatever." 

The Wallachians had been at war with 
the Turks, and having met with reverses, 
they were forced to conclude a peace, and the 
foregoing treaty contains the terms on which 
that peace was established. 

The Danube often proved an inefficient 
barrier between the Christians of Moldo- 
Wallachia, and their fanatical neighbours. 
After the death of Mahomet 11. , the Turks 
made frequent inroads into the Principalities, 
and at one time seized upon the fortresses of 
Ibraila, Giurgevo, and Tourno. In 1598, 
however, the Yaivode Michael put to the 
sword a body of three thousand janissaries, 
who were committing horrible ravages in the 
country, and finally di'ove the Turks across 
the Danube. Mahomet III. invaded Moldo- 
Wallachia, with an army of sixty thousand 


men, and after a five years' struggle, the 
Maliommeclans were completely routed, and 
again driven across the Danube. On the 
death of Michael, in 1602, the Turks taking 
advantage of the confusion which followed 
that event, crossed the Danube at different 
points, and forced the Wallachians to elect a 
Yaivode named by the Sultan. The treaty 
of Mahomet II. was then again put in force, 
and the amount of the tribute raised, and 
from that period, up to the present time, the 
position of the Principahties with regard to 
the Porte has virtually remained the same. 

It was not tin 1536 that Moldavia be- 
came a tributary of the Porte. Tliis, how- 
ever, was a voluntary act on the part of the 
Vaivode, who, as a measure of prudence, 
offered to pay an annual tribute to Sultan 
Suleyman I., in exchange for that monarch's 
protection. The same treaty as that exist- 
ing between the Porte and Wallachia was 
then concluded between Suleyman and the 
Vaivode of Moldavia, but the word ' tribute ' 
was omitted, and ' peshkiesh,' or ' present,' 
substituted in its stead. 



It was in 1710 that the Russians first 
entered into correspondence with the Princes 
of Moldo-Wallachia. Bessarabha, then Yai- 
vode of Wallachia, secretly agreed to furnish 
Peter the Great with a contingent of thirty 
thousand men, to aid him in his war against 
the Turks, and to furnish, moreover, the 
Russian army with provisions and other ne- 
cessaries. This arrangement became known 
at Constantinople, and the Porte determined 
to put Bessarabba to death, by luring him 
into a snare. Demetrius Cantimir, the his- 
torian, was chosen by the Porte to be the 
organ of its vengeance, and he was accord- 
ingly sent as Vaivode to Moldavia, and 
Nicholas Mavrocordato, the reigning Vai- 
vode, was deposed. Cantimir, however, so 
far from complying with the instructions of 
the Porte, had no sooner arrived at Yassy, 
than he sent to the Czar, offering him his 
services. Peter, seeing matters so favour- 
able, entered Yassy at the head of a large 
army, in 1711 ; but Bessarabba, alarmed at 
the approach of 220,000 Turks, failed in his 
promise to the Czar, and it is to this conduct 


on the part of tlie Wallachian Yaivode, that 
is to be chiefly attributed the reverses of the 
Eussian arms in that campaign. When 
peace was conckided, Bessarabba was sent, 
with all his family, to Constantinople, where > 
he and his sons, after being tortured, were 
put to death, and Stephen Cantacuzene, a 
descendant of the imperial family of that 
name, was appointed Yaivode in his stead, 
and Nicholas Mavrocordato was reinstated 
in the place left vacant by the defection of 
the Yaivode Cantimir, in Moldavia. 

It was after Cantacuzene's short reign of 
two years, that the Porte determined to take 
exclusively into its own hands the nomina- 
tion of the Hospodars of Moldo-Wallachia, 
and to abolish the system of election. This 
determination was come to at the instigation 
of Alexander Mavrocordato, then chief dra- 
goman to the Turkish government ; and it 
was also at his suggestion that the Sultan 
ordered that, for the fature, the Hospodars 
for Wallachia and Moldavia should be chosen 
from amongst the Fanariot Greeks of Con- 
stantinople. The Turks, at that time, re- 

F 2 


posed great trust in the Greeks of the Fanaar, 
and it was, therefore, easy to persuade them 
to choose from amongst them the new Yai- 
vodes, whom they supposed would be more 
tractable than those elected from amongst 
the native Boyards of the Principalities. 
This system of appointing the Yaivodes by 
a simple firman from the Porte, continued 
till after the treaty of Adrianople, in 1S29, 
when M. de Kisselief, then Eussian Plenipo- 
tentiary of the Principalities, drew up a form 
of government for Moldo-Wallachia, known 
as the *' Reglement Organic." Eussia had 
then become a protecting Power, and had a 
voice even more potent than that of Turkey 
in the internal affairs of the Principalities. 
By the " Reglement Organic'' the system 
of electing Hospodars from amongst the 
native Boyards was restored, but the election 
was subject to the joint approval of both the 
Sublime Porte and the Court of St. Peters- 
burg. A veto from either Power was suffi- 
cient to annul the election. At the revolu- 
tion which took place in these provinces in 
1848, both princes fled, and when order was 


restored in L849, MM. Stirbey and Grhika 
were chosen without election by Russia and 
the Porte, as Hospodars of Wallachia and 
Moldavia, to govern these provinces, not for 
life, according to the terms of the '^ Regle- 
ment Organic" but for a period of seven 



Not a treaty has been quoted in these pages, 
that has not been violated by Russia. Rus- 
sia, claiming to form one of the great family 
of the civilized nations of Christendom, has 
violated the treaty of Vienna, in taking pos- 
session of the mouths of the Danube, and 
obstructing their navigation; she has violated 
the treaty of Adrianople, in occuj^ying the 
islands in that river ; she has trampled on the 
treaty of Balta-Liman, by crossing the Pruth 
with her armies in last July, and even the 
'' Reglenient Organic,'' drawn up by herself, 
was flung aside as a dead letter, by both that 
Power and Turkey, in the irregular nomina- 
tion of MM. Stirbey and Ghika. It is diffi- 


cult to say where national faitli and national 
honour have found a refuge in these days, 
when we see a great Christian Power, with 
whom no promise is sacred and no treaty is 
binding, meeting with only a qualified re- 
pro val from the other governments of Chris- 
tendom. Before the Christian subjects of 
the Sultan call out for the Protectorate of 
Eussia, let them look first to Moldo-Wal- 
lachia, and see the baleful effects of that 
Protectorate in these Principalities. Since 
1829, the power of the Porte in the Danu- 
bian provinces has been but a name. The 
Czar, under the modest title of Protector, 
has been, since that period, the virtual 
sovereign of these countries. Not a single 
appointment, from that of Hospodar, down 
to the elder of a village, can be made with- 
out his approval. The Eussian Consuls- 
General have had the finances under their 
control, and the chief of the quarantine, 
which is a police institution, is a Eussian. 
And has Eussia, since obtaining the Protec- 
torate of these Principahties, gained the 
goodwill of the inhabitants ? Was it from 


sympathy for them, as members of the 
Greek Church, that she interfered in their 
concerns ? Has the conduct of the Czar to- 
wards them, as head of their Church, been 
paternal or kind, or even just ? liussia 
tolerates serfdom, and has permitted to the 
Boyards certain feudal privileges, which 
they can exercise over their own people, but 
they, themselves, are in their turn but 
the bondsmen of Eussia. She introduced 
that fatal scourge, her police-laws and her 
espionage, and held up to the imitation of 
a people, emerging from barbarism, the 
corruption which pollutes her own institu- 

When the Russians crossed the Pruth in 
last July, they ordered M. Stirbey, the 
Hospodar of Wallachia, to refuse payment 
of his tribute to the Porte, and he obeyed. 
He was their humble servant in all they 
wished. The other day they ordered him 
to proclaim martial law, and he did so, and 
all his ministers signed the document, and 
when they wanted him no longer they ordered 
him to be gone. He begged to remain, but 


the Eussian general was inexorable, so he 
left Bucharest for Giurgevo, intending to 
proceed up the Danube to Vienna by the 
Austrian packet. But when he arrived at 
Giurgevo, the captain of the Austrian steamer 
refused to receive him on board, and he was 
forced to come back to Bucharest. Here at 
the gate of his capital he was stopped by 
the poHce, who would not allow him to 
enter, and he was obliged to make a circuit 
outside the town to get on the road to Her- 
mandstadt, whither he was commanded to 
proceed. At Hermandstadt he was arrested 
by the Austrian authorities till permission 
came from Vienna for the exiled Hospodar 
of Wallachia to proceed to that city. When 
Stirbey was gone. Prince Gortschakoffe sum- 
moned the members of the Wallachian mi- 
nistry before him, and addressed them fti the 
following terms : — 

" Messieurs, vous etes restes charges de 
Tadministration du pays, mais ma position 
vous place naturellement sous ma direction. 
Je vous recommande I'armee Imperiale. Je 
n'ai pas a me plaindre de la maniere dont 

F 3 


les soldats sent traites, mais j'appelle sur 
eux toute voire solicitude. II faut qu'ils ne 
manquent de rien, et que vous ailliez au 
devant de leurs besoins. Soyez zeles dans 
raccomplissement de vos devoirs. M. de 
Khaltcliinsky servira d'intermediare entre 
vous et uioi. 

" Vous etes sous un gouvernement mili- 
taire ; tachez de vous eonduire de maniere 
a ne pas en subir les rigueurs. 

" Defendez severement a vos employes de 
s'occuper de politique quelconque. 

" Quiconque entretiendra une correspon- 
dence avec la Turquie sera pendu debout 
dans les vingt-quatre heures. Je dis cela pour 
tout le monde, depuis le Grrand Bano, 
jusqu'au plus petit Percalabe. Je sais 
qu'il-y-a parmi vous des Boyards qui ont 
ecrit pour devenir Prince et Postelnic, mais 
sachez qu'on sera pendu avant d'etre Hos- 
podar ou Postelnic." 

Such is tlie paternal tone in which the 
agents of the Czar speak to the ministers of 
the Christian people of this country ; in 
dealing with the lower classes they employ, 


as may be supposed, something strongei" 
than words. 

Within the last month war has been pro- 
claimed by the Porte, and has been accepted 
by the Czar, and numbers have fallen on 
both sides. From the very commencement 
of Prince Mentschikoff's mission to Constan- 
tinople, the Emperor Nicholas had foreseen 
that such would be the result of his demands. 
He must have known full well that the Sultan 
would never have consented to place under 
the Protectorate of Russia so many millions 
of his subjects, and he must have also known, 
that in this resolution the Porte would be 
supported by the great Western Powers. 

The Czar pledged his word that war was not 
his object, and his professions were believed. 
Negotiations were opened, but so complicated 
did they become, that diplomacy was at 
length bewildered, and the Porte, driven to 
desperation by the contradictory counsels of 
her advisers, declared war, but gave an in- 
terval of a fortnight before commencing 
actual hostihties. The Czar was then at 
Olmutz, and openly made professions of 


peace. He was again believed, and the 
Cabinets of the other four great Powers 
again set to work to try and prevent blood- 
shed. Before any light could dawn upon 
the blundering obscurity which enveloped 
the plans of the different diplomatists, the 
fifteen days allowed by the Porte expired, 
and Turks and Eussians were at once en- 
gaged in deadly strife on the Danube. On 
Sunday, the 23rd day of October, the delay 
allowed by the Sultan expired. On that 
very day orders were given to the Russian 
flotilla to advance up the Danube. The 
cannon on board the steamer and gun-boats 
were ready shotted, and the vessels were 
cleared for action. The fort of Issactche 
was the first formidable point which the 
flotilla had to pass. On the left bank op- 
posite to Issactche, General Luders hastily 
threw up some works beliind which he placed 
his mortars. When the hostile flotilla ad- 
vanced the Turkish fortress opened its fire, 
which was returned by the gun-boats and 
steamer, whilst General Luder's battery from 
the opposite bank threw shells into Issactche, 


which finally burned the town. It is evi- 
dent then that the Eussians in this provoked 
hostilities, and that they had determined, 
though negotiations for peace were going 
on in Europe to force Turkey into war. It 
will be seen from the Russian bulletin, that 
it had been at first intended to send up the 
flotilla during the night, under cover of the 
darkness, but that the commander and officers 
begged that the movement should take place 
in open day. The conflict therefore was 
foreseen, and Greneral Luders, having thrown 
up a battery on the right bank, showed that 
the Russians determined to make the most 
of the conflict. When the telegraphic des- 
patch of the French Consul-General at Bu- 
charest, announcing this event, was published 
in Paris and London, few would give it 
credit. It was natural enough, that in the 
face of the solemn protestations of peace 
made by the Emperor a few days before, 
scarcely any one would credit that he had 
privately ordered his generals on the Danube 
to commence hostihties. The sanguinary 
affair of Oltanitza rapidly succeeded that of 


Issactche. The horrors of war have begun ; 
negotiations are now useless, and notes and 
protocols may be flung to the wind. 

The great Powers of Western Europe 
now know what they have to expect from 
Eussia, how insincere are her professions, 
and how great her contempt for interna- 
tional rights. AU the attempts of France 
and England at an arrangement have failed, 
and their counsels and remonstrances have 
been treated with contempt by the govern- 
ment of the Czar. 

Eussia can overwhelm Turkey, if the latter 
power be not assisted. Eussia has continued 
to occupy the Danubian Principalities in 
spite of our remonstrances. WiU we allow 
her to take possession of Constantinople ? 
The Czar is driving Europe into a general 
war, but the bloodshed and the horrors which 
attend such a calamity will be laid at his 



It is impossible to suppose tliat tlie inha- 
bitants of the kingdom of Grreece believe that 
the sympathy professed for them by Eussia 
is either sincere or disinterested. One fact 
alone will be sufficient to show what are the 
real views of the cabinet of St. Petersburg 
with regard that country. 

In 1843 a conspiracy was got up m 
Grreece, which had for its object to force 
King Otho to abandon his throne, and fly 
from the country, that a Hospodar appointed 
by Eussia might be placed in his stead. At 
the head of this conspiracy was the then 
Eussian charge d'affaires at Athens, and the 
chief instrument in carrying on his schemes 


was General Kalergi. About three years 
ago I was staying at the island of Hydra, 
where General Kalergi then resided with his 
relative, M. Conduriotis. We were thrown 
a good deal together, and it was then that I 
learned the original object of the revolution 
which took place in Greece in 1843. 

General Kalergi told me that for some 
time previous to the month of September, 
1843, he had been in constant secret com- 
munication with the Eussian Minister at 
Athens. He was then, he said, devoted 
heart and soul to Eussia, and was determined 
to carry out her designs even at the risk of 
his life. Kalergi has a great and well de- 
served reputation for bravery, and he is 
moreover an excellent officer. These quali- 
ties had given him great influence over the 
whole Greek army, but he was particularly 
beloved by the cavalry, of which he was the 
immediate chief. It was on account of this 
influence which Kalergi possessed over the 
Greek troops, and his known devotion to 
Eussia, that he was chosen as a proper in- 
strument by the Eussian agent. A little 


before midnight on the 3rd September, 1843, 
Kalergi placed himself at the head of the 
cavalry, which had been kept under arms, 
and sent his aide-de-camp to order the artil- 
lery and infantry to join him without delay. 
The aide-de-camp, who was accompanied by 
a detachment of Lancers, was instructed to 
put under arrest any officer who refused to 
obey Kalergi' s command. Only a few officers 
devoted to Kalergi were aware of the object 
of the movement, the mass of the army knew 
nothing of the reason of their being called 
out, but they obeyed Kalergi as he was the 
officer commanding in the town. As to the 
citizens, they were, one and all, kept in the 
most profound ignorance with regard to the 
plot or its objects. When the troops were 
assembled, Kalergi appealed to their love for 
their country, for which they had fought and 
bled, and he then excited their resentment 
against the present order of things, by show- 
ing them that the court was filled by 
foreigners, and that honours and favours 
were daily showered upon strangers, whilst 
the Greeks, who had purchased their coun- 


try's independence with tlieir blood, were 
treated with neglect. He then called on 
them to follow him, and that he would ob- 
tain redress. His speech was answered by a 
cheer, and he at once marched to the palace, 
which he surrounded with his troops, whilst 
he planted his loaded cannon at the gates. In 
the early part of the evening an order had 
been sent to the commander of a Greek war 
steamer lying at the Piraeus, who was in the 
plot, to have his steam up at about midnight, 
to be ready to convey King Otlio to Trieste 
the instant His Majesty arrived on board. 
The conspirators naturally concluded that 
the King, terrified by the revolt of his troops, 
would at once fly from Grreece. In this, 
however, they were mistaken. His Majesty 
is a man of undaunted courage, and he was 
determined that if he could not remain on 
his throne, that he would at least die in its 
defence. Thus the main object of the con- 
spirators failed. In this dilemma Kalergi 
sent his aide-de-camp for instructions to M. 
Katakasi, the Eussian minister. M. Katakasi, 
however, had already received information 


of the state of things at the Palace, and of 
the King's determination to defend his crown 
to the last extremity. The Russian minister 
saw at once that his plot had failed ; and to 
save himself and his government, if possible, 
from the stigma of being the instigators of 
the treason, he determined to abandon 
Kalergi to his fate, and therefore loading the 
Greneral's aide-de-camp with abuse, calling 
him rebel and villain, he drove him out of 
his house. When the aide-de-camp returned 
to Kalergi, and told him of the reception he 
had met with from M. Katakasi, " I felt my 
head," the Gleneral said to me, " tottering 
on my shoulders ; I was in a state of rage 
and despair, but I was determined to make a 
bold attempt to try and save the lives of 
those who, like myself, had been seduced 
into the undertaking. I therefore sent my 
aide-de-camp to Sir Edmund Lyons, to tell 
him of the position in which I was placed, 
and to beg his advice and protection. Sir 
Edmund at once sent me back word, to re- 
main where I was, to keep the troops quiet, 
and that he would go and see the King." 


The people had followed the troops into 
the open place before the palace. When 
they heard the movement was to get rid of 
the foreign employes, they joined in the cry, 
and they shouted out that the King should 
give them a constitution. Sir Edmund 
Lyons had not been long in conference with 
the King, when he came out and announced 
to the soldiers and the people, in the name 
of his Majesty, that the foreign employes 
should be all sent out of Grreece, and that a 
constitution would be given to that country. 
This announcement was received with wild 
enthusiasm, the soldiers returned to their 
quarters, and the citizens carried Kalergi in 
triumph thi'ough the streets of Athens. 
Thus, as it sometimes happens, out of evil 
comes good. 

Kalergi, after these events, became the 
devoted friend of Sir Edmund Lyons. He 
went to England shortly after as the patriot 
who had obtained a constitution for Greece, 
and he was presented with 3,000/. and a 
costly sword, by his countrymen who are 
established there as merchants. So con- 


fident was the Eussian Government of the 
success of this conspiracy, that they had 
abeady appointed a Eussian governor for 
Greece, and had made all the arrangements 
for placing the country under the exclusive 
protection of the Czar. 



It has been the fashion for some years 
past to decry the kingdom of Greece, its 
government, and its laws. I have been well 
acquainted with that country since 1843, for 
I arrived there in that year on board the 
same British frigate which brought Mavro- 
cordato, who after the revolution was ap- 
pointed prime-minister. I could never dis- 
cover any but a very flimsy basis for all this 
abuse. The evils which do exist in the 
country spring entirely from its poverty 
and its weakness, and the only remedy for 
them is to find some measure which would 
render the country stronger and more pros- 
perous. In these days tlie power and 


wealth of a nation depend chiefly on its 
commerce. The commerce of Greece is very 
limited, and for this reason — that its soil is, 
for the greater part, unproductive, and its 
population small, and, generally speaking, 
poor. Patras and Syra are the only towns 
of any commercial importance. Patras has 
an export trade in currants ; and Syra owes 
its comparative prosperity to its position, 
which is admirably adapted for transit 
trade. It cannot be said that the Greeks are 
either idle or ignorant ; they make the most 
of the few local advantages which they 
possess. The trade of Patras and Syra have 
been developed to their utmost limits since 
the independence of the country has been 
established. Those Greeks who could not 
find an opening in their own country have 
carried their talents and their spirit of 
enterprise elsewhere. Within the last few 
years they, by their unwearied activity, 
have absorbed the whole trade of the 
Levant ; and the millions which are yearly 
exported from Great Britain to the Medi- 
terranean pass through their hands. One 


of the richest banking-houses in the world 
at the present day is that of Baron Sina at 
Vienna, who is a most patriotic Greek, and 
Consul- General and Agent for King Otho in 
Austria. The house of Mr. Ealli, Consul- 
General for Greece in London, holds a very 
high place amongst the commercial esta- 
blishments of Great Britain. Mr. Ealli has 
large commercial houses in Constantinople, 
St. Petersburg, Odessa, and Calcutta, and at 
different ports of the Mediterranean. There 
are no people who have so strong a spirit of 
national union amongst them as the Greeks. 
Their general prosperity and success in 
foreign countries is almost entirely owing to 
this sentiment. They mutually assist each 
other, and this is the reason why in most of 
the commercial crises the Greek houses have 
remained intact, whilst many of greater pre- 
tensions, both British and foreign, became 
bankrupt. When a Greek is prosperous in 
the world he extends his assistance to all 
his relations, and never denies a claim made 
upon him in the name of his country. 

It cannot be said the Greeks are ignorant, 


for the university of Athens is at present 
the fu'st seat of ancient Greek learnino- in 
Euro]3e. Modern Greek, which only a few 
years ago was studied solely by some Fana- 
riot families, is now spoken with purity by 
millions of the Greek race. There is not 
a town or village throughout Greece that 
has not a college or a school paid by the 
nation. I remember visiting, not long ago, 
a little village about twelve miles from 
Naupha, on the sea- shore. The inhabitants 
were very poor — some of the poorest in all 
Greece — but they had a school. The wretched 
people toiled at the meagre soil from morn- 
ing till night to keep the wolf from the 
door ; and though their children might have 
aided them in their labour, yet they thought 
it their first duty to send their little ones to 
school. I visited this school, where I found 
some thirty children assembled. They were 
supplied with slates and books by the com- 
mune, but writing-paper was an expensive 
luxury which was only given to the more 
advanced pupils. The beginners learned to 
write upon the sand. There was a long 



board, with a ledge round it, strewed with a 
thin layer of fine sea-sand, and before this 
eight or ten little creatures were standing, 
and with their chubby fingers were drawing 
ujDon the sand their alphas and omegas 
under the direction of a monitor. They all 
pulled oft* their red caps when I entered, and 
laying their little hands on their breasts, 
they made me a grave bow. The head boy, 
who had nothing on but a loose shirt and 
very wide pair of breeches, recited for me, 
with a great deal of fire, a warlike passage 
out of Homer, which was applauded by all 
the little fellows as soon as he had finished. 

Arithmetic, geography, and general his- 
tor}^ are taught in all these small schools. 
Besides the university at Athens, there are 
two royal colleges ; one at Patras, the other 
at the Piraeus ; and there are large public 
schools in all the principal towns. I was 
present once at the midsummer examination 
which took place at the public school of 
Tripolitza, where the pupils answered ex- 
ceedingly well in mathematics, literature, 
and history. There is an extensive military 


college at the Piraeus, and judging from 
what I saw at the public examination there, 
it is conducted as well as any estabhshment 
of the kind in Europe. There is, also, a 
school of agriculture near Nauplia, which 
has done a great deal of good by introducing 
improved machinery into the husbandly of 
the country, and by the excellent system 
taught there for the cultivation of tobacco 
and of the vine. The exportation of tobacco 
from Xauplia has of late become pretty con- 
siderable. It is almost all shipped from that 
port to Marseilles. 

After having shown that the Grreeks are 
an industrious and well-educated people, I 
think it will be very easy to prove that they 
are lovers of freedom. In Greece there is a 
limited monarchy ; there is a parliament com- 
posed of a senate and chamber of deputies, 
and there is universal suffrage. The press is 
free, and the expression of individual opinion 
is uncontrolled. There are no passports, no 
spies, no tortures, and no condemnation 
without a legal trial. People are found who 
assert that King Otho is opposed to a po- 

G 2 


pular form of government, and that he has 
with him a party whose constant efforts are 
to try and overthrow the constitution. Such 
assertions are totally unfounded. The only 
enemies of the constitution in Greece are the 
Russians. It is with them that originate all 
the accusations against King Otho, his go- 
vernment, and his people. It is they who 
are most active in trying to vilify Greece in 
the eyes of Em^ope, that they may hold it 
up as a model of the evil effects of constitu- 
tional freedom. I defy the enemies of Greece 
to point out a single unconstitutional, arbi- 
trary, or cruel act that was ever sanctioned 
by King Otho. His Majesty accepted the 
constitution in 1843, because it was the will 
of the nation, and he has remained conscien- 
tiously faithful to the pledge he then gave. 
In this his example has been followed by his 
brother King Maximilian of Bavaria. King 
Maximilian ascended the throne in 1848, and 
swore allegiance to the constitution, and he 
is the only sovereign of central Europe that 
has not broken a similar engagement. The 
Emperor of Austria is the first cousin, and 



has again been nearly allied to the King of 
Bavaria, and what account did the Austrian 
government set upon the constitution or tlie 
oaths by which it was made sacred? The 
King of Prussia is also the relative of King 
Maximilian, and where are the popular 
rights which that monarch swore to give to 
his people ? Uninfluenced by the example 
of his powerful neighbours, and unswayed 
by their remonstrances, the King of Bavaria, 
in the midst of the despotic states by which 
he is surrounded, has kept his honour unsul- 
lied and his word unbroken. 

The same rehgious toleration which exists 
in Bavaria exists also in Grreece. In Ba- 
varia the large Protestant population enjoy 
equal rights with their Catholic fellow-citi- 
zens. The king is a Roman Catholic, but 
Queen Marie of Bavaria is a Protestant. 
The majority of the Grreek people belong to 
the orthodox faith, but their king is a Ca- 
tholic, and the Queen of Greece is a Pro- 
testant. Grreeks of all religions are equal 
before the law, nor is one religion favoured 
in the slightest degree more than another. 


There is a cliapel in the palace of Athens in 
which, when mass has been said in presence 
of the king, the Protestant chaplain performs 
the service of his church for the queen. 



There is a very handsome Protestant 
church in Athens, near the AcropoHs, dedi- 
cated to St. Paul. There is also a large 
Catholic church in the city. The congrega- 
tions which frequent both churches are very 
Hmited. In the Peloponnesus, the islands of 
the ^gean sea, and the interior of Attica, 
the population is entirely of the Grreek faith. 
I remember that in my first visit to Nauplia 
I was wandering through some of the re- 
mote streets in search of the remains of that 
proud repubhc of Venice whose winged lions 
are still over the gates of the town, when 
I found myself before what had once been a 
Turkish mosque. Wliilst looking at this 


relic of a people that had at one time 
triumphed over the fleets and armies of Ve- 
nice and the militant church of Christendom, 
a door of the old mosque opened, and there 
came out a Catholic priest. The mosque 
had been converted into a chapel this gen- 
tleman told me, and was confided to his 
care. We entered the old mosque toge- 
ther. Over the altar was a handsome paint- 
ing of the Holy Family, which was a present 
from the late Queen of the French. He told 
me that he was all alone ; that he had not 
even a clerk. He said that in Nauplia there 
was not a single Catholic, but that there 
were a few Bavarians employed in the ar- 
senal, and that on Sundays and feast-days 
they came to assist at the sacrifice of the 
mass. He said that until that day, for a 
long time, he had not spoken Italian, which 
was his native tongue. He spoke Greek 
well, but he said it was pleasant to him to 
hear the language of his childhood. He 
leaned his head pensively on one side as he 
said this. I saw that he was thinkino- of his 
convent- garden in the Alban hills. 


Nessuii magg-ior dolore, 
Che recordarsi del tempo felice, nella miseria, 

says poor Francesca, and this is a very touch- 
ing truth, even though written in less beau- 
tiful words than those of Dante. 

Early the next morning I came back to 
the chapel and waited on the priest whilst 
saying mass. It was a duty I had done in 
times gone by with a lighter heart. We 
were alone, and there was sometliing more 
than usually solemn and mournful in the 
words of the sacrifice, as they echoed under 
the domed roof of the old mosque. 

In the dominions of King Otho the 
Grreek race have the means of obtaining a 
refined and useful education, as well as a love 
for constitutional freedom. It is impossible 
then to suppose that, possessed of these ad- 
vantages, they would ever wiUingly consent 
to become the serfs of Eussia. In Greece 
the peasantry are almost in general proprie- 
tors of the portion of land on which they 
live, and they pay no other tribute than 
the taxes due to the government, which are 
legally assessed. Here, in Moldo-Wallachia, 

G 3 


which is nnder the protection of Eussia, the 
peasants are little better than slaves. I 
have seen them struck, and even crnelly 
beaten by those above them in rank, without 
murmuring, or even dreaming of seeking re- 
dress. The Greeks have a traditional hatred 
to the Turks ; but I have never met one 
amongst them who would aid Eussia in 
making war against the Porte if he thought 
that, on the overthrow of the Sultan, he 
should fall under the yoke of the Czar. 



At the end of October I started one eveninof i 

at about ten o'clock from Bucharest for the ' 

town of Griurgevo. I was in a light open 

carriage, drawn by four horses. There was I 

only a place for one person inside, and my ; 

servant sat upon a seat in front. It was a i 

sharp, frosty night, but I was well wrapped i 

in furs, and I lay at full length in the bottom ' 

of the carriage, for I had the seat removed, 

with a thick layer of hay beneath me, and a ■ 

bag of despatches under my head. I beguiled 

the way in looking at the stars, which were 

shining wdth solemn brightness in the clear 

sky above me, and I soothed my spirits by 

smoking some excellent cigars, which a ; 


thouglitful friend had bestowed upon me 
before parting. Smoking the chibouk, with 
which I always travel in these countries, was 
out of the question, for going at full speed, 
as we did, over the uneven ground, it would 
have been impossible to hold it steadily to 
one's lips. At about twelve miles from 
Bucharest our headlong career was brought 
to a sudden check by two Bussian sentinels, 
with fixed bayonets. The terrified postilion 
pulled up his horses in a twinkling, and the 
soldiers, seizing them by their heads, led us 
ofi* the high road into the midst of an en- 
campment. Here we were questioned by 
an officer, who seeing, I suppose, our harm- 
less appearance, and that our passports were 
in order, permitted us to proceed. Though 
the encampment was large the silence was 
profound, and we certainly should have 
passed it by without knowing we were near 
so formidable a force, had we not been 
stopped by the sentries on the high road. 
The men's arms were piled before each tent, 
and suspended from the fixed bayonets were 
the helmets and cross-belts all ready to hand. 


There was only one watch-fire, and that was 
at a little distance beyond the camp. There 
were some eighty or ninety men standing 
round it, dressed in their long great-coats. 
They stood there like statues, not speaking 
a word. Grrim and fierce they looked in the 
flickering light of the fire, and so profound 
was the silence around them, and so motion- 
less their attitudes, that they seemed as if 
engaged in some unholy rite. The moment 
we were clear of the camp we scampered 
away quicker than ever. Every ten miles 
we got fresh horses, and by giving a small 
present to the chouch, or stable-keeper, we 
got the best of his steeds. 

A little before dawn we entered the town 
of Giurgevo. The dispatches which I had 
with me were to be sent across the Danube 
to Butschuck to Said Pacha, who had orders 
to forward them by a Tatar to the British 
Ambassador at Constantinople. The case 
was one of great difficulty, for martial law 
had been proclaimed and all communications 
with the Turkish bank of the river was 
forbidden under pain of death. We, how- 


ever, succeeded in getting the despatches 
across to Eutscliuck, and they were at the 
proper time duly received hy Lord Stratford 
de Eedchffe. 

There are two small islands lying opposite 
to Giurgevo, one of these is called in 
Wallachian Mokan. The whole surface of 
this island is thickly covered with stunted 
trees, under which a large body of men might 
easily remain unseen. The other island, 
which lies a little higher up the river than 
Mokan, is an open marsh on which there is a 
watchhouse raised upon poles, which at 
the time I visited Giurgevo, was occupied 
by Cossacks. At dawn, on the 2nd of No- 
vember, eleven boats filled with men were 
discovered coming down the river from the 
direction of Eutschuck and making towards 
Mokan. The fog was very thick, so that 
the boats were half way through when the 
alarm was given. There was only one point 
at Giurgevo from which artillery could reach 
these boats, and from this point the Eussian 
guns were distant about half a quarter of a 
mile. Before these guns could be brought 


up, eight of the boats had reached Mokan 
and landed their men, but three still re- 
mained, and upon these the Eussian artillery 
opened their fire. No sooner had the first 
gun been fired than a Turkish war steamer 
came out from Eutschuck and sweeping 
bravely down the river took the boats in 
tow and returned the fire of the Eussians. 
Giurgevo at the point where the guns were 
stationed is about thirty-five or forty feet 
above the level of the river. The steamer 
was on the outside of the first island, she had, 
therefore, to fire over the island and on to 
the height where the artillery was stationed. 
This the people on board the steamer per- 
formed with a scientific skill difficult to 
surpass. One shot from the steamer killed 
a Wallachian sentry, another struck a house 
in the town at about three feet from the 
ground, making a breach in the front wall, 
and then recochetting, broke its way through 
a second wall, and a third shot killed a woman 
in one of the streets, whicli is about a hundred 
yards from the bank of the river. I mention 
these details to show that the Turkish 


artillerymen know their business, for firing, 
as they did by parabole, is not a thing to 
be learned in a day. All this time the men 
in the boats, taken in tow by the steamer, 
were standing up and firing their muskets, 
as if in defiance, though the shots were 
dropping aromid them. The three boats 
finally reached the island and landed their 
men, and the steamer anchored close in on the 
Turkish bank of the mainland. As far as I 
could see of the men on the island of Mokan, 
through a very good glass, and of the others 
who came to reinforce them on the following 
days, they must have been all irregular troops. 
The Turks are still (19th November) in pos- 
session of Mokan, though various attempts 
have been made to dislodge them, one of 
which was ofiicially announced as being suc- 
cessful. When I left; Giurgevo, the Eus- 
sians had two thousand infantry, a regiment 
of hussars, and twenty pieces of cannon in 
the town and the immediate neighbourhood. 
My intention on leaving Griurgevo was to 
go by the road along the river to Oltanitza, 
the head-quarters of Greneral Daniijenberg. 


We knew that the Turks had landed in 
force near Oltanitza, and that a battle at 
that point was inevitable, if it had not al- 
ready taken place. The governor of 
Grim-gevo, however, advised me not to go 
by the bank of the river as I would thus 
run the risk of being picked off by a stray 
shot, but recommended a road higher up 
which was quite as short and much safer. 
As I have always had a great objection to 
being killed by mistake, I followed the 
governor's advice. I know nothing more 
exhilarating than after a good cup of coffee 
in the morning to get into one * of these 
little Wallachian carriages, and with four or 
six horses to dash off at full speed across 
the wild shrubless steppes. I had four ex- 
cellent horses going out of Griurgevo with a 
gipsy boy as postilion. I promised him 
an additional swanzaker if he drove fast. 
He grinned at this, and tightening the sash 
he wore round his waist, shrieked at his 
horses, and cracking his long-thonged whip 
over his head, we started off at full speed. 
The little T\Tetch seemed delighted with his 


work, for he would lean forward in liis saddle 
uttering piercing cries, at which the horses 
would lay down their ears and gallop away 
faster, if possible, than before. When at times 
he turned round, laughing, with his flashing 
eyes, and glittering white teeth, and his 
elfin hair streaming in the wind, he looked a 
perfect imp. 

It was a more serious thmg than I 
thought, that of entering the Russian lines ; 
for those pleasant fellows, the Cossacks, have 
a habit of firing at strangers ; but I think 
it right to say that if they do not succeed in 
killing you at the first shot, they often enter 
very willingly into conversation, and are 
ready to receive anything you have to give. 
I had, therefore, to keep up the road as high 
as Dobrene, a distance of five posts, and then 
take the road by Negoyesti to Oltanitza. 
At Dobrene we came upon a brigade of 
infantry and a strong body of sappers and 
miners, marching in the same direction as 
ourselves. Whilst we were changing horses 
at Dobrene a crowd of young girls, dressed 
out in their finery, for it was a holiday, were 


standing near, looking at the soldiers as they 
passed. Some of them were very pretty ; 
and one in particular, though she wore no 
stockings, and her poor legs were quite pink 
from the cold, was really beautifrd. Their 
pleasant smile and odd curtsy, when I bade 
them good evening, made me forget the 
horrible Cossacks. 



We made a detour to get ahead of the 
soldiers, and as night was setting in we 
reached the banks of the Ardgish. At every 
few paces along the road we met with bag- 
gage waggons, detachments of soldiers and 
stragglers of different kinds. But these 
were all staid regular troops, and not practical 
jokers, like the Cossacks. The Cossacks 
prefer playing off their pranks about the 
advanced posts of the army, where skirmish- 
ing is going on, and where there is a little 
pleasant license. 

At nightfall the postilion struck into 
another road to avoid the stragglers, and to 
get on, as he thought, more rapidly. It 


soon, however, became very dark, and he lost 
his way. The sky was covered with heavy 
dark clouds, large drops of rain began to 
fall, and a strong wind which was against 
us, blew the coarse dust into my eyes, as we 
galloped along, which made them smart 
severely. Occasionally the postilion stopped 
and called out, but no one answered. As 
far round as I could see, there was not a 
sign of a human habitation. Sometimes we 
got off the road altogether and went career- 
ing through the fields. I like very much to 
follow a pack of hounds when well mounted, 
but I am forced to confess that crossing the 
country in a carriage is not pleasant. I 
was cold and wet, and out of temper, and 
forgot all about the pretty faces I had seen 
at Dobrene. At length, we suddenly stum- 
bled in some unaccountable way, into the 
midst of a little village. Here the postilion 
learned his road, and about two hours later 
we arrived at Boudesti. We were stopped 
at the barrier ; but the sentries finding I was 
going on to the Commander-in-chief, we 
passed through. 


It was late at night when I arrived at 
Negoyesti where I intended to sleep. Here 
there is a khan which professes to give dr}^ 
lodging to belated travellers. It is in a 
damp position on the bank of the Ardgish 
and at about two hours distance from 
Oltanitza. The postmaster of Negoyesti 
was absent, and the landlord of the khan 
gave me the room which that functionary 
generally occupied, and which he said was 
the best in the house. It was a very dirty 
room, containing a stove in which there was 
no fire, a deal table, and a chair, and two 
divans, which at night were converted into 
beds. There was no wood to be had to make 
a fire ; the Russians, the man said, had 
carried it all away. So I bought two chairs 
and had them broken up for fuel, and I soon 
had a tolerable fire in the stove. I had 
brought with me from Giurgevo two roast 
fowls, a couple of bottles of wine, and some 
bread, which was lucky, for there was little 
to eat in the khan but onions. 

For about seven hours we had been travel- 
ling in a cloud of dark dust, or rather sand. 


It had not rained sufficiently to penetrate 
the thick layer of coarse, gritty dust with 
which the road was covered, and the horses, 
as they galloped along, kicked it up in a 
mass, and the strong wind, joined to the 
speed at which we were going, kept it whirl- 
ing round us in a cloud. My face was as 
black as if I had come out of a coal-pit, and 
to my dismay I found that the roast fowls, 
when unpacked, were covered with a coating 
of dirt, as if they had been rolled in the 
ashes. The dust had penetrated through 
everything. It got into the tube of my 
chibouk, it incorporated itself with the 
tobacco, and become a component part of 
the bread, meat, and wine. The rain had 
converted the dust on my hat and cloak 
into a thick coating of stucco, and my hair 
and beard, from the same cause, had become 
of the colour and consistency of a tile. 

As soon as I had finished my gritty meal, 
I was preparing to lie down as comfortably 
as I could on one of the divans, and try and 
get to sleep, when I received a visit from an 
aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-Chief, who 


told me he had been sent by the General to 
say that it would be dangerous for me to 
move about the advanced posts of the army, 
for that the Cossacks, who are a wild and 
barbarous race, had little respect for any 
one who did not wear the Bussian uniform, 
and the General had therefore directed that 
an officer should accompany me, whose 
presence would save me from molestation. 
Thereupon the aide-de-camp introduced a 
young officer, who spoke French very well, 
and who turned out a very good-tempered, 
agreeable companion. I agreed fully with 
the aide-de-camp that even knouting the 
Cossack to death who might l)ring me to an 
untimely end, could scarcely do me much 
good as I lay stark and cold on the banks 
of the Ardgish. I therefore accepted the 
companionship of the 3^oung officer with 
lively gratitude, and I begged of the aide-de- 
camp to express my acknowledgments to the 
Prince and to General Dannenberg for their 
thoughtful kindness. 

The town of Oltanitza is situated near the 
confluence of the river Ardgish and the 


Danube. N^early opposite to Oltanitza, on 
the right bank of the Danube, is the Turkish 
town and fortress of Tartukai, and about 
equidistant from both banks, is a small 
island. At the extreme point where the 
Ardgich falls into the Danube, is a large 
stone building which serves as a quarantine, 
and near it are the ruins of a fort. The 
Turks, advancing from Tartukai, first took 
possession of the island, where they erected 
batteries, and then crossed over to the qua- 
rantine point. Here they cut a ditch from 
the Ardgich to the Danube, which enclosed 
the quarantine and the old fort. They also 
constructed a masked battery of nine guns. 
The Turks were allowed to pursue their 
operations quietly without molestation from 
the Russians, and this I observe to have 
been hitherto the constant tactic of Prince 
Gortschakoff and his generals. His idea 
seems to be to concentrate the Turkish 
troops as much as possible at one point, and 
then fall upon and crush them at a single 
blow. If this be the Prince's idea, he has 



certainly underrated tlie courage and skill of 
his adversaries. 

When about ten thousand Turks were 
concentrated about the quarantine of Olta- 
nitza, a body of Russian cavalry were sent 
forward to make a reconnaissance. The object 
of this movement was evidently to draw the 
Turks out of their entrenchments, and it 
naturally enough succeeded with troops ex- 
cited as are those of the Sultan. At the fire 
which the Tm^ks opened upon them the 
cavalry fell back, and the former, think- 
ing them routed, tlirew planks across the 
ditch, and, crossing over, advanced into the 
open country. The main body of the Ras- 
sians then pushed forward under the fire of 
the artillery which was posted on the heights 
behind. When within a short distance of 
the Turks, the Russian infantry formed in 
Une and charged. The Turks met them 
bravely, and for a few minutes it was a 
hand-to-hand fight. Grenerally speaking, 
the Russian infantry soldier is a taller and a 
1:)rawnier man than the Turk, and in a 


struggle which bone and muscle must decide, 
supposing the courage and skill of the com- 
batants to be equal, the Russians naturally 
had the advantage. The Turks gave way, 
and retreated within their works, and were 
hotly pursued by their adversaries. The 
Russians poured down in mass, thinking the 
day their own, and were swarming across 
the ditch cut by the Turks from the Ardgich 
to the Danube, when suddenly the guns of 
Tartukai, the batteries on the island, and 
the seven gun-boats anchored near it, opened 
a tremendous fire of round shot and shells, 
whilst the masked battery near the Quaran- 
tine belched out its grape and canister. 
General Dannenberg said subsequently, that 
since Borodino, he had not seen so well sus- 
tained a fire ; and another of the Generals 
told a friend of mine, that since the siege 
of Warsaw, he had not seen so destructive a 
cannonade for the time it lasted. The Rus- 
sians were completely paralyzed at this 
unexpected reception. There were a few 
moments as if of stupefaction, no command 
was given, and the men stood still under the 

H 2 


fire of their adversaries. Luckily for tlie 
Russians, this confusion lasted but an in- 
stant. Suddenly the order to retire was 
given, and the troops fell back steadily 
beyond the range of the Turkish guns. 
One thousand and five men of the Russians 
were put hors de combat on that day, and 
on an average, eight out of every ten of the 
wounded sent into hospital have since died. 
The Turks had a body of about eight hun- 
dred sharpshooters armed with the Minie 
rifle, under cover within their works, whose 
sole duty was to shoot the Russian officers 
whenever they came within range. This 
accounts for the number of officers killed 
and wounded. 

In the night the Turks destroyed their 
works, and retired across the Danube to 
Tartukai, taking with them their killed as 
well as their wounded. 



The sight of death on a field of battle, 
does not produce the same feehng of awe 
that is caused even by the view of a passing 
funeral. You ride over the field the day 
after the fight, and you thread your way 
amongst the dead with a strange indifference 
at the sight of so much carnage. Whilst 
listening to the roar of battle, to the clash of 
arms, and the cries of the combatants, your 
mind is being prepared for the spectacle 
which awaits it, when the smoke will have 
cleared away and the opposing ranks have 
ceased their work of slaughter. Then tlie 
free wind is blowing freshly over the bodies 
of the slain ; the sky above is bright and 
sunny, birds are singing on the neighbour- 


ing trees, and the broad Danube is flowing 
calmly on to the sea. And close to where 
the soldier lies dead, his comrades are busy 
with their camp-kettles cooking their morn- 
ing meal or are going through the routine of 
their duties. Nothing around you is in har- 
mony with feelings of mourning or regret. 
And so you continue your way over the 
ground till you have satisfied your curiosity 
as to the state of the living and the number 
of the dead, and then you too look anxiously 
after your morning meal, and as you are 
sipping your coffee and smoking your pipe, 
you speculate calmly upon the chances of the 

How different is this from the feeling of 
depressing awe with which you look on 
death in cities, in the sick chamber, in the 
midst of quiet, daily avocations. In the 
house where there is death, you walk noise- 
lessly and hold your breath, for perhaps you 
hear stifled sobs. It may be, a child, 
that is weeping beside her dying father, or a 
mother's heart that is breaking, for the boy 
who was her pride and hope, lies dead. 


Some years ago I was delayed at Mar- 
seilles, waiting the arrival of the steamer 
which was to take me to Malta. It was 
the merry vintage-time, when the fields 
resound with cheerful cries ; the colleges and 
schools are closed, professor and schoolboy 
are free, and for some weeks at least, the 
former bids good-bye to headaches, and the 
latter to the salle de discipline. 

On the first day of my dining at the 
table d'hote of the hotel where I put up, 
there was a young collegian present, who 
told us that he lived near Cannes, and 
that he was waiting for his father, who 
was to come and take him home. He said 
he had passed a good examination, and he 
showed us the prizes he had won. The 
sight of these prizes, he said, would make 
his father very happy, and that was the rea- 
son he had worked so hard to get them. He 
worked so hard that he had made himself ill, 
he told us, and was obliged to go to tlie 
infirmary for a couple of days before leaving 
the college. He was not yet well, for he 
had a great pain in his head. But when he 


got home the pain would go away ; his 
father and he would be so happy together. 

He was liis father's only child : his mother <■ 

was dead, she had died long ago when he | 

was a baby. He amused us with his talk, \ 

but before dinner was over, the pain in his ; 

head was so bad that he had to go to bed. ] 

His room in the hotel was next to mine, and i 

as I passed it by that night, the door was \ 
open, and I saw a night-lamp burning on the 

mantel-piece and a woman, a nurse-tender i 

evidently, was preparing a drink at a table on \ 

wliich were some medicine bottles. j 

From my bed I could hear all that passed ; 

in the sick boy's room. He was attacked \ 

with fever, and it was evident that he had i 
abeady become dehrious. " Oh ! Papa ! 

viens done, mon papa. Papa ! ou est mon I 

Papa?" I heard him call out, and then he j 

would cry and say that his father did not ; 

care for him, and would never come. After 


some time the nurse seemed to grow angry, ■ 

for I heard her say, " Hold your tongue, I 1 
can't get a wink of sleep ; ton papa ! ton 

papa! ton papa ne viendra pas." But the | 


boy still called plaintively upon his father, 
and then I heard a sound as if the woman 
struck him. He moaned sadly, but he spoke 
no more. 

I was awakened the next morning, by the 
noise of some one running rapidly up -stairs. 
I heard the door of the collegian's room 
flung open, and a man's voice say, " Jules, 
my child, here I am," and there was the 
sound of an embrace. It was the boy's 
father. '' Oh ! my father ! " said Jules, 
" where is my father ? Don't strike me, 
and I will be very good, but send me my 
father." " Oh ! mon Dieu ! mon Dieu ! " 
said the father, " he don't know me," and 
I heard the man sob convulsively. 

It was late when I stole noiselessly to my 
room that night. Jules and his father were 
together ; I heard them speaking. The 
boy's senses had returned. " Shall we soon 
go home, father ? " said Jules, in a weak 
voice, " 1 don't Hke this place." " Cer- 
tainly, my dear child," said the father, " we 
shall go home the instant you get a little 
stronger." Then they talked about a pony, 

H 3 


which Jules was to ride, and of his gun, and 
the friends they were to visit. Old Theresa, 
Jules' bonne, would be so glad to see him ; 
the old woman always cried with joy when 
he came back from college. She had pre- 
pared Jules' room. It was quite droll to see 
the fidget she was in all day long, about this 
room. It could never be nice enough for 
her Jules. She had hung a picture of Notre 
Dame de la Garde at the head of his bed, 
and every morning she put fresh flowers 
in his window. The father talked a great 
deal about " Marie." She had become a 
grande demoiselle, and prettier than ever. 
Every Sunday since Jules went to college, 
she came to the chateau with her mamma, to 
ask for news about him. They would go 
and pay her a long visit when they got back 
to Cannes. I observed that Jules' voice was 
growing weaker and weaker, and at length 
it was the father alone who spoke. And 
Jules would sigh whenever his father spoke 
of little Marie. 

" Jules, my child," said his father, " you 
are listening to me," " Oui, mon papa," 


answered Jules. " Tu es content que je te 
parle, mon enfant clierie ? " '^ Oh, yes, 
speak to me always, father," answered the 
boy. '' Jules !" called out the father after a 
time, but he called again before Jules 
answered, and then it was very feebly. 
After a pause, the old man again called 
" Jules !" but there was no reply, and he 
called again and again in a louder voice, but 
his son did not answer. Then there was a 
cry of grief from the old man that went 
through my heart, and I knew that poor 
Jules was dead. 

I was very glad to leave Marseilles next 
day ; but despite the bustle of departure and 
the change of scene, it was a long time be- 
fore I could shake off the saddening effects 
of the young collegian's death. 



After the engagement at Oltanitza, there 
was some skirmishing, of no importance, 
between the Turks on Mokan and the 
Russian troops stationed at Giurgevo. On 
one occasion, the Russians brought some 
field-pieces down to the water's edge, oppo- 
site to Mokan, during the night ; and when 
the fog cleared away in the morning, they 
opened a brisk cannonade upon the Turks, 
and then, crossing over, drove them from 
the island. After having destroyed what- 
ever trifling works they found at Mokan, 
the Russians returned to Giurgevo, and the 
Turks, on the following day, again took up 
their position on the island. This island 


is not of the slightest importance to either 
party, and therefore it does not matter by 
whom it is held at the present moment. 
A landing at Ginrgevo by the Turks would 
be almost impossible, the bank is so high ; 
whereas, a little lower down or higher up, 
the country is flat and open. 

The original motive of the Turkish 
general in occupying Mokan was evidently 
to cause a diversion, whilst he was sending 
troops across to Oltanitza. 

In the beginning of November, the Turks 
occupied two important points on the left 
bank of the Danube, as well as the island of 
Mokan, opposite Giurgevo. At that time, 
the Bussian army in the PrincipaUties did 
not consist of much more than fifty thou- 
sand effective men. If from these three 
points Omar Pasha had made a simultaneous 
movement, he might have established his 
head- quarters at Bucharest. It is to be 
presumed that Prince Gortschakoff supposed 
that the Turkish general would take advan- 
tage of the success which he had obtained at 
Oltanitza and advance towards the capital of 


Wallacliia, which was within Httle more 
than a day's march; for, immediately on 
the news of the battle of Oltanit a reaching 
the Enssian Commander-in-chief, he, for the 
first time, left his quarters at Bucharest, 
with the whole of his staff, and joined 
Greneral Dannenberg at Boudesti, in and 
around which village he concentrated, with 
almost incredible rapidity, forty thousand 
men and ninety pieces of cannon. He sent 
forward a few battalions towards Giurgevo, 
but he made no movement in the direction 
of Kalafat, for he knew that Ishmael Pasha 
was not in a condition to attempt offensive 
operations. No army in the world could 
have stood under the guns of Tartukai ; the 
Turks, therefore, might safely have remained 
at Oltanitza, where the quarantine would in 
itself have furnished excellent quarters for a 
considerable body of men, and they might 
have easily, and at their leisure, constructed 
huts of sufficient solidity to resist the in- 
clemency of the coming winter. ; for winter 
had not yet begun, nor was anything like 
severe weather felt in Wallachia till the 


29tli of November. Up to that date the 
nights were cold, but the days were gene- 
rally bright and sunny. It was therefore 
absurd to say that the inclemency of the 
weather had induced Omar Pasha to with- 
draw his men from Oltanitza. I can bear 
witness to the astonishment with which the 
Russians found that the Turks, during the 
night, had blown up their works at Oltanitza 
and retired across the river to Tartukai. 
Prince Gortschakoff, who hurried out from 
Bucharest with the idea possibly of seeing 
some fighting the morning after his arrival 
at Boudesti, rode down to Oltanitza, and, 
after ordering his staff to retu'e, went alone 
over the dismantled works at the quarantine 
point, and having finished his survey, gal- 
loped back to his comfortable quarters in the 
capital of WaUachia, perfectly easy in his 
mind, doubtless, on the subject of surprises 
from his Moslem adversaries. The Russian 
Commander-m-cliief evidently considered the 
campaign as closed till the spring, unless, 
perhaps, a chance ofiered itself of efiecting a 
coup-de-main at Kalafat. The Russians saw 


with satisfaction that the Turks were 
coming over in large numbers to Kalafat, 
and their hopes were consequently greater 
that they would gradually spread themselves 
over Little Wallachia. One of the first ob- 
jects of Prince Gortschakoff, on the breaking 
out of the war, seemed to be to induce the 
Turks to occupy that part of the Princi- 
palities. For that purpose, he withdrew his 
troops from Little Wallachia, leaving but a 
very small force in the neighbourhood of 
Cray ova. Had his object been to prevent 
the Turks from taking possession of Kalafat, 
he might have fallen upon them in detail as 
they landed, for they came over in boats ; 
or he might have attacked tliem before they 
commenced their works of defence. Such, 
however, was not his plan. He hopes, evi- 
dently, to make short work of the campaign, 
to fall upon the Turks when tliey have 
assembled in sufficient numbers on the left 
bank of the Danube, so that, if the river is 
to be crossed next spring, it can be effected 
with but little difficulty. I can only infer 
from all that I have seen that this is Prince 


Gortscliakoff's plan; whether it will turn 
out successful or not is, of course, another 

Shortly after the battle of Oltanitza, the 
winter festivities began at Bucharest, and 
dinner-parties, balls, and concerts, succeeded 
each other with rapidity, as though the 
hospitals were not filled with the wounded 
and the sick, and there were not hundreds of 
newly-dug graves on the banks of the 
Ardgish. Oltanitza was forgotten ; a new 
topic had taken possession of the town — an 
English prima donna was announced for 
the Itahan opera of Bucharest. We natu- 
rally felt anxious for the success of our 
countrywoman, appearing at such a moment 
before an audience almost entirely Eussian. 
We feared that she might be badly received 
because of her country, and therefore it 
was with considerable anxiety that we took 
our places in the Consul-Greneral's box to 
witness her appearance in Beatrice di Tenda. 

Singing, as I have already mentioned, is 
taught in every regiment in the E-ussian 
army ; and amongst Russian officers I have 


met some very good mnsicians. The ma- 
jority of our prima donna's audience might 
therefore be supposed to possess a certain 
amount of critical talent. The English- 
woman's success was decided after the first 
scene. The Eussian officers, who crowded 
the pit, applauded uproariously, and brought 
our countrywoman three times curtseying to 
the foot-hghts. She had a good voice, of 
considerable compass ; but, above all, she 
showed herself a thorough musician, who 
had been properly educated for her profes- 
sion. She sang the composer's music faith- 
fully and correctly, a thing which no one 
had ever heard before at the Opera of Bu- 



An occasional steamer still plied between 
Constantinople and Gralatz, and by one of 
these Her Majesty's Agent at Bucliarest de- 
termined to send despatches to Lord Strat- 
ford de Eedcliffe. Mr. Colqnhomi had two 
Albanians in his service, named Greorgie and 
Yanni. These men wear the fustanelle and 
turban, and carry arms in their belt accord- 
ing to the custom of their country. Greorgie 
has been employed in the consulate for nine- 
teen years. He is a staid, solemn- visaged 
man, very chary of his words, and prefering 
to convey his ideas by signs. Georgie is of 
the Greek Church, and a native of Philip- 
opoHs ; where he lived amongst the Turks, 
and acquired from them his grave oriental 


deportment. To Georgie the despatches 
were entrusted, with orders to dehver them 
to Mr. Cunningham, Her Majesty's Vice- 
Consul at Gralatz, by whom they were to 
be forwarded by the steamer to Constan- 
tinople. We were seated after dinner, smok- 
ing our evening chibouks, when Georgie came 
to tell us that the little mail-cart, which was 
to take him to Ibraila and Galatz, was at the 
door. He received the despatches and in- 
structions with his usual unmoved solemnity, 
and, getting into the narrow kish, called a 
mail-cart, drove off for the Danube. Know- 
ing that Georgie would be exposed to a cer- 
tain risk on his way to Galatz, I proposed to 
take the despatch myself. Fortunately for 
my comfort, I was dissuaded from the idea 
by Mr. Colquhoun, and the Albanian went 
instead. When more than a week had 
elapsed, and there were no tidings of him, 
we began to feel uneasy about his fate. Mr. 
Colquhoun, who is naturally one of the most 
kind-heated of men, became painfully anxious 
about poor Georgie, who had been in his ser- 
vice so long. At length one evening an 


employe of the Vice-Consurs at Ibraila ar- 
rived post from that town, with the news 
that Georgie on his way back to Bucharest 
had been arrested by the Eussian General 
Inglehardt, and thrown into prison. 

Georgie, whilst waiting at Ibraila to have 
fresh horses put to his mail-cart, left his 
despatches at the Vice-Consul's office, and 
went into a coffee-house to get something to 
eat. Whilst there he, as well as a servant 
of the Vice-Consulate, who was with him, 
was arrested by some Eussian soldiers, and 
carried before General Inglehardt, who was 
reposing, after the fatigues of the day, in a 
neighbouring tavern. 

" Who are you?" asked the General, when 
Georgie was brought before him. 

" I am a messenger in the service of the 
British Consul-General at Bucharest," an- 
swered Georgie. 

" This is not true," said the General; 
" you are a Turk." 

'' I am a Christian," said Georgie, " and 
belong to the orthodox faith." 

" A Christian does not dress as you do. 


You are a Turk, I say. Off with liim to 
prison, and the other fellow who is in his 
company," cried out the General; and Greorgie 
and his companion were locked up. 

Mr. Cunnino^ham is Vice-Consul at Tbraila 
as well as Galatz ; but he happened just then 
to be at the latter town. His Chancellier, 
however, apphed to the Wallachian Grovernor 
of the town to have Georgie released ; but 
the Governor rephed that he could not in- 
terfere, and referred the Chancellier to the 
Eussian General. Since the occupation of 
the Principalities by the Eussians, all British 
Agents have received strict injunctions to 
abstain from official communication with the 
Eussian military authorities, and not in any 
way to recognise their right to interfere in 
the internal administration of the country. 
The Chancellier, therefore, refused to apply 
to the Eussian General, and said that he 
would hold the Governor responsible for 
Georgie 's arrest. 

Mr. Cunningham arrived at Ibraila next 
day, and he wrote a very moderate but firm 
note to the Wallachian Governor of the 



town, in which he simply stated that the 
messenger of the British Consulate-General 
at Bucharest, whilst in charge of despatches 
from the Earl of Clarendon to Her Majesty's 
agent in the capital of Wallachia, had been 
arrested by General Inglehardt, and thrown 
into prison. Fortunately, Mr. Cunningham 
added, the despatches in the messenger's 
charge had been left at the Vice-Consular office 
whilst he went to get some refreshment. 
The despatches, therefore, were not in liis 
possession when he was taken to prison, and 
an employe of the Vice-Consulate had started 
with them for their destination. 

Luckily General Inglehardt had discretion 
enough to see that the matter, as it stood, 
was very serious, and that if he persisted in 
keeping Georgie in prison it might become 
much more so ; he, therefore, after some 
delay, gave orders for his release. 

When Mr. Colquhoun wrote to the Wal- 
lachian Secretary of State U230n his mes- 
senger's arrest, he was refused all satisfaction. 
Tlie Russian Consul-General said that aU he 
knew of Mr. Colquhoun was, that he had 


hauled down his flag some time before, and 
that, therefore, he was then but a private 
person, and he ordered the Wallachian Go- 
vernment to take no notice of his commu- 
nication. Mr. Cunningham, as well as the 
other English Yice-Consuls in the Princi- 
palities, had not hauled down his flag at 
the same time as the British and French 
Consuls-General at Bucharest. He was, 
therefore, at the time of Georgie's arrest in 
the full exercise of his official functions ; 
and his application could not, therefore, be 
treated in the same way as Mr. Colqahoun's. 
Georgie remained but twenty-four hours in 
prison ; but his long absence from Bucharest 
was caused by his having received orders 
from Mr. Cunningham to wait at Galatz 
for the arrival of a steamer from Constan- 
tinople, which, it was expected, would bring 
despatches from the Foreign Office for Mr. 
Colquhoun. When the expected despatches 
came, they were confided by the Yice-Consu- 
to Georgie ; and it was whilst on his wa^ 
to Bucharest in charge of them that he wat. 
arrested by General Inglehardt. 



After the affair of Oltanitza the Eussian 
soldiers who had suffered from sickness or 
wounds, were removed from the hospitals 
when they became convalescent, and were 
billeted upon the inhabitants. As there 
was not sufficient accommodation for my 
servant in the house where I was Hving, he 
hired a room at a neighbouring khan, where 
he slept. One night, on his arrival at the 
khan, he found all the rooms in the building 
occupied by Eussian soldiers, his own 
amongst the number. He complained to 
the keeper of the establishment, but that 
fanctionary told him he could do nothing, 
and showed him rooms where whole families 



slept together, and amongst wliom the 
Eussian soldiers had insisted upon quarter- 
ing themselves. My servant was an Ionian, 
a native of Itheca, and consequently under 
British protection. His room, according to 
treaty, was therefore inviolable. This the 
countryman of Ulysses knew, and he accord- 
ingly went and laid a complaint before the 
nearest police magistrate, whom he forced 
to find another billet for the soldier. The 
Ionian was the only person in the khan who 
got rid of his disagreeable guest ; the rest 
of the inmates, who were Russian subjects, 
Eayah Greeks, and Wallachians, were obliged 
to submit to their fate. 

Wlien this circumstance was told me by 
my servant next morning, I thought it a 
good opportunity of giving him a lecture 
upon the predilection which he, in common 
with all his countrymen, entertained for 
Eussia. I asked if British soldiers had ever 
been quartered by force upon families in the 
Ionian Islands ? if they had ever seized upon 
the property of the citizens by force ? or if 
English of&cers could with impunity mal- 


treat the humblest Ionian ? And I asked 
him if lonians, when wronged, had ever ap- 
pealed to British laws for redress, or to the 
agents of Her Majesty's Government in 
other countries for protection without effect ? 

lonians have been amongst the most 
active agents of the Eussian propaganda 
since the commencement of the present 
question. They hope that when the Czar 
will have taken Constantinople, he will 
then lend his benign protection to the Seven 
Islands. The lonians may, at times, have 
to complain of their Lord High Commis- 
sioner and his government ; but that they 
should desire to exchange the protectorate of 
a free nation Hke Great Britain for the serf- 
dom of Bussia appears incredible. 

Another project entertained very generally 
by the lonians is, to unite their country 
with Greece ; and they hope to effect this 
tlirough the agency of Bussia. It seems 
strange that an intelligent people, such as 
they are, should for a moment suppose that 
the Emperor of Bussia, if he were to suc- 
ceed in rendering himself predominant in 

I 2 


the East, would permit the kingdom of 
Grreece, with its free institutions, to main- 
tain its independence, or that he would in- 
crease the extent of that little constitutional 
power by annexing to it the Ionian Islands. 
It is to be presumed, however, that Russia 
will soon be placed in a position which will 
render it impossible for her to put her am- 
bitious designs into execution, and that the 
lonians and other fanatical admirers of the 
Czar will then take a more rational view of 
their position. 

Late on the afternoon of a day in last 
December, and in the midst of a violent 
snow-storm, I left Bucharest for Vienna. 
Though six horses were harnessed to the 
carriage in which I travelled, our progress 
was but slow, owing to the badness of the 
roads and the inclemency of the weather. 
Towards midnight we stopped at a khan, 
where it was deemed advisable to remain till 
daylight. As usual, there were no beds in 
this khan, and nothing to eat. After some 
difficulty, we succeeded in lighting a fire, 
and with the provisions which we had taken 


the precaution to bring witli us from Bucha- 
rest we made a tolerable supper. I sat by 
the fire and smoked till the first streak of 
dawn appeared, when we again renewed our 
journey. The country being entirely covered 
with snow, presented everywhere the same 
uniform aspect of desolation. We passed 
tlnrough a village here and there at long 
intervals upon the road, and about sunset 
we reached the foot of the Carpatliian moun- 
tains. Though the faihng light increased the 
dangers of the ascent, we determined to at- 
tempt it, for it was impossible to remain 
till daylight in the desolate spot where we 
then were. The road over this part of the 
Carpathians is merely a rude gallery cut out 
of the side of the mountain, with a precipice 
on one side and a perpendicular wall of rock 
or sandy soil upon the other. There was 
barely room for the carriage to pass, and 
the deviation of a couple of feet from 
the usual track would have precipitated 
us into the abyss. The postilions got ofi" 
and led the horses, whilst some peasants 
walked after the carriage, placing stones 

I 3 


behind the wheels every time we were forced 
to stop, to prevent the carriage from rolling 
back. When we had succeeded in gradually 
ascending for about two miles, one of the 
horses became restive and plunged violently. 
It was now night and we had no other light 
to guide us than that of the stars. It was a 
white horse that became restive, and from 
where I sat in the carriage I could see him, 
but indistinctly, as he reared and plunged. 
In the faint light of the stars he looked of 
monstrous size, as he attempted to spring 
to the side of the mountain, and then came 
trembling back upon the other horses. Our 
position was critical. It was impossible to 
get out of the carriage, for on one side, 
within a foot's breadth of the wheels, was 
a precipice, and on the other side was the 
perpendicular face of the mountain. One 
of the postilions at length succeeded in 
cutting the traces of the restive horse, and 
once freed, he dashed forward and disap- 
peared in the gloom. We then began again 
to move on, but slowly and cautiously till 
we reached an open table-land. Here there 


was a large barn-like building, and in it we 
determined to remain till daylight. We 
made a good fire, got our provisions out of 
the carriage, and made ourselves as com- 
fortable as we could till dawn. The next 
morning we found that our way lay through 
one of the most dangerous passes in that 
part of the mountain. The postilions would 
not allow us to get into the carriage for 
fear of accident, so we started forward on 
foot. We walked on for about seven hours, 
when the road became slightly improved, 
and we began to descend again into the 
plains. At the foot of the mountain over 
which we had passed we found a small khan, 
where we got a very good dinner of broiled 
fowls and some tolerable wine. We were 
nearing the Austrian frontier, and the 
country was evidently getting more civil- 
ized. We were several miles in advance 
of the carriage, and we were not at all dis- 
pleased to have a httle time to appease our 
hunger and get some rest after a sleepless 
night and a weary walk. 

It would be difficult to describe the mag- 


nificence of the scenery tlirough which we 
had just passed. Mountain upon mountain 
towered above us covered with snow, and 
beneath us was a dark narrow glen, on the 
edge of which lay our path. Shortly 
after leaving the hovel in which we had 
passed the night, the sun began to rise. 
We were then on the summit of one of the 
lesser peaks of the Carpathians, and looking 
back we could see tlirough an opening in 
the mountain the plains of Wallachia all 
white with snow. Up the sun rose slowly 
and majestically. First came masses of 
dusky-red clouds, which grew gradually 
brighter and brighter at their edges till 
suddenly bursting, they melted away into 
rose-coloured vapour. Then the glittering 
beams of the sun fell upon the mountains, 
and as he rose the shadows crept away from 
their snowy sides, till gradually the scene 
around us became one of the most wonderful 
sublimity and beauty. Instinctively we 
knelt in the snow and prayed. • This I 
believe is a common feeling in those who 
witness for the first time a scene like that 


I have attempted to describe. Opening 
one's heart to God is an instant rehef to our 
over-wrought sensations. 

About four o'clock that afternoon we 
crossed the Wallachian frontier, and late in the 
evening we entered the town of Cronstadt. 
I would advise all English travellers visiting 
Cronstadt to ask the master of the hotel 
where they stop for a Hst of his prices 
beforehand, for anytliing so absurdly exor- 
bitant as the charges made me at the hotel 
where I put up in that town I had never 
seen before. 

Cronstadt is a charming httle town in the 
midst of a great frowning mountain. The 
inhabitants seem to have nothing of that 
oriental apathy that one sees on the Wal- 
lachian side of the frontier, but are an 
active, hard-working, and prosperous people. 
From Cronstadt we proceeded to Herman- 
stadt, and from thence took the road to 
Arad. On our way to the latter town we 
had to stop for the greater part of a day 
on the- bank of the river Marosh, till a 
passage was cut through the ice for the raft 


which was to transport us and our carriage 
and horses to the other side. After some 
hours' rest in an excellent inn at Arad, we 
started for Szolnok. At Szolnok the Vienna 
railway begins, but between that town and 
Arad there is no road whatever. The car- 
riage in which we travelled from Arad had 
no springs, and the jolting as we galloped 
along over the broken ground was so great 
that at times I was afraid of having a limb 
fractured or put out of joint. When we 
arrived at Szolnok, the day after our de- 
parture from Arad, I could scarcely move, 
I was in such pain from the jolting. 

Between Szolnok and Pesth, a gend'arme 
came into the train, and took the passports of 
all the passengers, and gave us receipts in 
return. When within about an hour's dis- 
tance from Presbourg, a pohce-officer entered 
the carriage where I was, and asked me for 
my ]3assport. I handed him the receipt 
which his colleague had given me between 
Szolnock and Pesth. This, he said, was not 
sufficient, and that I could not go on without 
my passport, which I ought to have got back 


from the police-office at Pesth. Wlien the 
train stopped at Presbourg, a gend'arme 
accompanied me into the waiting - room, 
where he told me I must remain, for that I 
was under arrest, and would not be allowed 
to continue my journey. He said this in a 
loud voice, and was heard by most of the 
other passengers in the room. Nearly all 
eyes were instantly turned towards me, and 
in general with a sympathetic expression, for 
we were in Hungary, and I was looked upon, 
I suppose, as some political victim. As I 
have a great horror of noisy altercations, I 
waited till the gend'arme had left the room, 
and then following him, I took him quietly 
aside, and showed him an official paper, writ- 
ten in German, and vised by the Austrian 
authorities at the frontier, which stated who 
I was. It was not a passport, but a paper 
addressed to the chief of the custom-house, 
near Cronstadt, stating that despatches of 
which I was the bearer contained nothing 
contraband. The gend'arme on reading this 
document became remarkably civil. He told 
me I was free to continue my journey, and 


that I should meet with no further annoy- 
ance on my road to Vienna. Previous to 
that he had not asked me what countryman 
I was, or where I had come from, or whither 
I was going. 

I was not sorry to find myself next morn- 
ing comfortably installed at Munsch's hotel, 
wliich, by the way, is one of the best hotels 
in Europe in every respect. It was the 
unusual comfort which I found there that 
mainly restored my strength after the shat- 
tering journey I had had from Bucharest. 

English travellers have often had to com- 
plain of the treatment which they received 
from the subordinates of the Austrian pohce. 
This, however, is now no longer the case, and 
an Englishman who conducts himself pro- 
perly, may travel as freely through the whole 
of the Austrian empire as through any other 
continental country. This is entirely owing 
to the representations made upon the subject 
to the Austrian Government by the Earl of 
Westmorland. It is satisfactory to think 
also that Lord Westmorland's concihatory 
policy has, at the present crisis, placed Her 


Majesty's Government on friendly and eordial 
terms with the cabinet of Vienna. 

It is very possible that before these 
pages come before the public, Europe will be 
plunged into war. The British Government, 
however, will have the consolation of feelino- 
that they have done all that they could, con- 
sistent with the honour of England, to save 
us from that calamity ; and that if they 
have at length adopted extreme measures, 
they have been forced to do so by the blind 
obstinacy of the Emperor of Eussia. Though 
a cry has been raised against the policy of 
Her Majesty's ministers, as weak and vacil- 
lating, it has only proceeded from a fraction 
of the nation, whilst the great mass of the 
educated and well-disposed classes of the 
community have given their warm approba- 
tion to the wise and Christian -like conduct of 
the Government. 






- r 




This book is due on the last date stamped below or 

on the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subjea to immediate recall. 


M^>« Si v.- 

AUG 9 1978 

- ^ a. r iK. m ? -n 


LD 21A-50m-9,'58 

General Library 

University of California